Bronski Beat ¦ The Age Of Consent

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Veröffentlichung The Age Of Consent:

1984

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The Age of Consent
Bronski Beat - The Age of Consent Album Cover.jpg
Studio album by
Released15 October 1984
GenreSynthpop, new wave, dance, hi-NRG
Length44:22
LabelLondon
ProducerMike Thorne
Bronski Beat chronology
The Age of Consent
(1984)
Hundreds & Thousands
(1985)
Singles from The Age of Consent
  1. "Smalltown Boy"
    Released: June 1984
  2. "Why?"
    Released: 26 September 1984
  3. "It Ain't Necessarily So"
    Released: 5 December 1984

The Age of Consent is the debut album by synth-pop band Bronski Beat (Steve Bronski, Larry Steinbachek and Jimmy Somerville), released on London Records on 15 October 1984.[1] This was the only album released by the band to feature Somerville, who departed the band in 1985.

A re-recorded and expanded version was released in 2017 under the name of "The Age of Reason", with Bronski, Ian Donaldson, and new singer Stephen Granville.

Background

By 1984, many European countries had reduced the age of consent for homosexual acts to 16, but it remained at 21 in the United Kingdom, having only been partially decriminalised in 1967. Homosexuality was not ‘legalised’ in Scotland, where Somerville was born, until 1981. The wording of the legislation to decriminalise also included wording that placed restrictions such as making illegal the use of a hotel room for sex.[2][3] Homosexuality was further stigmatised beyond the restrictions placed on homosexual individuals, and homophobia was a danger to gay individuals.[2]

Against this background, Bronski, Steinbachek, and Somerville met in Brixton in 1983, and soon formed Bronski Beat.[2] They signed a recording contract with London Records in 1984 after doing only nine live gigs.[citation needed]

The album was produced by Mike Thorne; the recording sessions took place in London and New York City. The first single, "Smalltown Boy", was recorded at The Garden studio (owned by former Ultravox singer John Foxx) and mixed at Maison Rouge studio, both of them based in London.[citation needed]

The song "Heatwave" features the tap-dancing rhythms of Caroline O'Connor.[citation needed]

The inner sleeve of the album contains the different international ages of consent for males to engage in gay sex, but this was removed from the United States release of the album by MCA Records after sales and radio play were reportedly lower than anticipated because of its inclusion.[citation needed]

Singles

The album produced four hit singles.

"Smalltown Boy"

The band's debut single was released in June 1984, peaking at number 3 in the UK singles chart in June, and reaching number one in Belgium, Italy, and the Netherlands.[4][5][6][7] It is a poetically poignant, soul searching composition addressing homophobia, loneliness and family misunderstanding. It has been described as perfectly encapsulating "the experience of being young and gay in the '80s".[8]

It was accompanied by a video of Jimmy Somerville with fellow band member friends Larry Steinbachek and Steve Bronski, who, while cruising at a public swimming pool and changing room, are attacked and beaten up by a gang of homophobes. Somerville is returned to his family by the police; he leaves home alone and has a reunion with friends Steinbachek and Bronski, travelling to a new life on a train.

The band had the telephone number of the London Gay Switchboard (telephone support and information for gays and lesbians in central London) etched into the inner groove of the 12" vinyl version.[9]

Additional congas were played by John Folarin. Sleeve cover art was by Gill Whisson.

"Why?"

The follow-up single "Why?" (recorded at RPM Studios, NYC and mixed at Townhouse Studio, London) pursued a more energetic musical formula, while the lyrics focused more centrally and darkly on anti-gay prejudice. The song opened with a questioning vocal by Somerville and the shattering of breaking glass. Released in September 1984, the single made the top 10 in the UK.

The promotional video opens with Steinbachek and Bronski buying artificial bombs and a small statue of Michelangelo's David in a mad supermarket. At the checkout, because they are openly gay, the assistant telephones the management to enquire whether they can pay for the items. They are refused. Meanwhile, Jimmy is singing behind a counter of sausages and salamis and, seeing the dilemma in progress, starts complaining to the checkout girl. All three are arrested by "the thought police" and made to appear for trial before a puppet court and senile judge (Jimmy's father in "Smalltown Boy") The band members are sent to a workhouse. From the workhouse, Jimmy rises up into the air and confronts "God". The workers revolt, and strip the thought police of authority and clothing. The band members are placed on pedestals, before "God" transforms all three of them into statues of salt for their alleged sins.

The thought-police actors who arrest the trio are the swimmer / homophobic gang-leader from the "Smalltown Boy" video and "Martin", a friend of the band whose situation in a gay relationship with a younger man actually inspired the lyrical content of the song. The video extras were mostly friends of the band; they went on strike during the video shoot, due to the excess labour endured by them in the production.

The "Smalltown Boy" and "Why?" videos were directed by Bernard Rose, who also directed the original video for Frankie Goes to Hollywood's "Relax".

The song is dedicated to the memory of playwright Drew Griffiths, a victim of a homophobic murder in 1984.

The sleeve cover art was by Robert McAulay.

"It Ain't Necessarily So"

The third single "It Ain't Necessarily So", the George and Ira Gershwin/ DuBose Heyward song (from the opera Porgy and Bess) that expresses opposition to biblical literalism, was released in November 1984 and reached the UK Top 20. The track featured Arno Hecht from The Uptown Horns on solo clarinet and the openly gay male choir from London, The Pink Singers. It was recorded at The Garden studio, London and Skyline Studios, NYC.

The promotional video featured Jimmy and Larry as inmates in a borstal with Jimmy and "Martin" (the "thought police" actor from "Why?") having a Christmas pie-eating competition which takes place during the Christmas religious service, which Jimmy wins. Steve plays a closeted prison warden who has a keen eye for one of the other prisoners.

The cover sleeve art was a parody of The Wizard Of Oz with Dorothy having the head of the devil.

"I Feel Love (Medley)"

A fourth (and final) single was released before Jimmy Somerville left the band in 1985: a medley of "I Feel Love / Johnny Remember Me / Love To Love You Baby".

A version of the medley had already appeared on the "Age of Consent" album, combining Donna Summer's seminal disco classic "I Feel Love" with John Leyton's "Johnny Remember Me", which had topped the UK charts in 1961. For its single release, former Soft Cell singer Marc Almond was enlisted to duet with Jimmy Somerville, and another Donna Summer disco song, "Love to Love You Baby", was added as the intro and coda. The single also featured a new backing track that was more synthpop-oriented and catchy than the original album version. As with the band's previous single, the choir providing backing vocals was The Pink Singers. Cellos were played by Beverly Lauridsen, Jesse Levy and Mark Shuman.

"I Feel Love (Medley)" was released in April 1985, with sleeve cover art by Gill Whisson. It became a big hit in the UK, entering the Top 10 in its second week on chart and peaking at number 3 for two weeks.[10]

Critical reception

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic[11]
Pitchfork7.2/10[12]
The Village VoiceC+[13]

The Village Voice's Robert Christgau, in a contemporary review, wrote that "Good politics don't have to be this monochromatic" and criticised the "narrow dynamic range that afflicts so many falsettos, even those with impeccable reasons for singing like women."[13] The album ranked at number 12 in CMJ's "Top 20 Most-Played Albums of 1985" list.[14] John Dougan of AllMusic retrospectively described the album's songs as "compelling vignettes about the vagaries of life as a gay man" and The Age of Consent as "simply a great album, period."[11]

Track listing

All tracks are written by Jimmy Somerville, Larry Steinbachek and Steve Bronski; except where noted.

No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Why?" 5:55
2."It Ain't Necessarily So"George Gershwin, Ira Gershwin, DuBose Heyward, Dorothy Heyward4:40
3."Screaming" 4:13
4."No More War" 3:52
5."Love and Money" 5:08
6."Smalltown Boy" 5:00
7."Heatwave" 2:41
8."Junk" 4:17
9."Need-a-Man Blues" 4:19
10."I Feel Love/Johnny Remember Me"Giorgio Moroder, Pete Bellotte, Donna Summer/Geoff Goddard5:59
CD release additional tracks
No.TitleLength
11."Smalltown Boy" (Full 12" Version)9:04
12."Why?" (Full 12" Version)7:46
CD 2012 re-release additional tracks
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
11."Smalltown Boy" (7" edit) 3:58
12."Why" (remix) 5:10
13."I Feel Love Medley" (Source Mix)Pete Bellotte, Giorgio Moroder, Donna Summer/Geoff Goddard10:05
14."It Ain't Necessarily So" (12" version)George Gershwin, Ira Gershwin, DuBose Heyward, Dorothy Heyward5:20
15."Red Dance" 7:00

Personnel

Bronski Beat

  • Steve Bronski - keyboards, percussion
  • Larry Steinbachek - keyboards, percussion
  • Jimmy Somerville - vocals

Additional personnel

  • Beverly Lauridsen, Jesse Levy, Mark Shuman - cello
  • The Pink Singers - choir
  • John Folarin - congas
  • Horns - Uptown Horns (Crispin Cioe (alto saxophone & solo, "Love And Money"), Arno Hecht (tenor saxophone), Richard Coles (clarinet solo), "It Ain't Necessarily So"), "Hollywood" Paul Litteral (trumpet) and Bob Funk (trombone))
  • Caroline O'Connor - tap dance
  • Kevin Glancy - backing vocals
Technical
  • Recording engineers: Peter Griffiths (London), Carl Beatty (NYC) & Dominick Maita (NYC)
  • Mixing engineers - Harvey Goldberg and Julian Mendelsohn ("Why?")
  • Recorded at The Garden (London), Skyline (NYC) & RPM (NYC)
  • Mixed at Maison Rouge, The Town House and Right Track Recording
  • Mastered by Jack Skinner (Sterling Sound, NYC) & Arun Chakraverty (The Master Room, London)
  • Producer - Mike Thorne

Charts

Certifications

Certifications for The Age of Consent
RegionCertificationCertified units/sales
Canada (Music Canada)[33]Platinum100,000^
France (SNEP)[34]Gold100,000*
Netherlands (NVPI)[35]Gold50,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[36]Platinum300,000^

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.

References

  1. ^ "Record News". NME. London, England: IPC Media. 13 October 1984.
  2. ^ a b c "Smalltown Boy". The People's Songs: The Story of Modern Britain in 50 Records. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  3. ^ Day, Aaron (15 July 2013). "The PinkNews Guide to the history of England and Wales equal marriage". Pink News. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Smalltown Boy - BRONSKI BEAT". VRT (in Dutch). Top30-2.radio2.be. Archived from the original on 9 April 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Hoogste notering in de top 30 : 1
  5. ^ "Smalltown boy". HitParadeItalia (in Italian). Creative Commons. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Bronski Beat - Smalltown Boy search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  7. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Bronski Beat – Smalltown Boy" (in Dutch). Mega Single Top 100. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  8. ^ "BBC Radio 2: The People's Songs". Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Bronski Beat – Smalltown Boy (1984, Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  10. ^ "OfficialCharts.com". Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ a b Dougan, John. "The Age of Consent – Bronski Beat". AllMusic. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  12. ^ Snapes, Laura (26 November 2017). "Bronski Beat: The Age of Consent". Pitchfork. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b Christgau, Robert (30 April 1985). "Christgau's Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Top 20 Most-Played Albums of 1985". CMJ: 16. 1 May 2004.
  15. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  16. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue 9575". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  17. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  18. ^ "European Top 100 Albums" (PDF). Eurotipsheet. Vol. 2, no. 8. 25 February 1985. p. 9. OCLC 29800226 – via World Radio History.
  19. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  20. ^ "Classifiche". Musica e dischi (in Italian). Retrieved 1 June 2022. Select "Album" in the "Tipo" field, type "Bronski Beat" in the "Artista" field and press "cerca".
  21. ^ "Charts.nz – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  22. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  23. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent". Hung Medien. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  24. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  25. ^ "Billboard 200 – Week of March 9, 1985". Billboard. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  26. ^ "Jaaroverzichten – Album 1984" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  27. ^ "Top 100 Albums (January 3–December 29, 1984)" (PDF). Music Week. 26 January 1985. p. 42. ISSN 0265-1548 – via World Radio History.
  28. ^ "RPM's Top 100 Albums of 1985". RPM. Vol. 43, no. 16. 28 December 1985. p. 14. ISSN 0033-7064 – via Library and Archives Canada.
  29. ^ "Jaaroverzichten – Album 1985" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Top 100 Album-Jahrescharts – 1985" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  31. ^ "Top Selling Albums of 1985". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  32. ^ "Top 100 Albums (January 5–December 28, 1985)" (PDF). Music Week. 18 January 1986. p. 11. ISSN 0265-1548 – via World Radio History.
  33. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent". Music Canada. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  34. ^ "French album certifications – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  35. ^ "Dutch album certifications – Bronski Beat – The Age of the Consent" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Retrieved 16 July 2022. Enter The Age of the Consent in the "Artiest of titel" box.
  36. ^ "British album certifications – Bronski Beat – The Age of Consent". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2 May 2022.

External links

Artist(s)

Veröffentlichungen von Bronski Beat die im OTRS erhältlich sind/waren:

The Age Of Consent

Bronski Beat auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

Bronski Beat

Jimmy Somerville, 2011
Allgemeine Informationen
Genre(s)Synthie-Pop, New Wave
Gründung1983
Auflösung1995
Gründungsmitglieder
Jimmy Somerville
Gesang, Keyboard
Steve Bronski († 2021)
Gesang, Perkussion
Larry Steinbachek († 2016)

Bronski Beat waren eine britische Synthie-Pop-Gruppe der 1980er Jahre. Sie bestand aus Steve Bronski und Larry Steinbachek, die für Keyboard und Perkussion zuständig waren, und dem Sänger Jimmy Somerville aus Greenock, Schottland. Alle Mitglieder des Trios waren offen schwul, was sich in ihren Liedern widerspiegelte, die oft politische Kommentare zu homosexuellen Themen enthielten.

Geschichte

Die Gruppe wurde 1983 gegründet. Im folgenden Jahr erschien ihre Debütsingle Smalltown Boy, die von einem Jungen handelt, der von seinen Mitmenschen aufgrund seiner Homosexualität verachtet wird. Die folgende Single Why? handelte von demselben Thema, jedoch war das Lied sowohl textlich als auch musikalisch dunkler und härter.

Ende 1984 veröffentlichte die Gruppe das Album The Age of Consent. Auf der Innenhülle der LP war das Schutzalter für homosexuelle Handlungen in den verschiedenen Ländern der Welt dargestellt. Auf der dritten Single It Ain’t Necessarily So werden drei Geschichten des Alten Testaments interpretiert (David gegen Goliath aus 1. Buch Samuel, Jona, Mose Geburt aus 2. Buch Mose), der Text stammt von Ira Gershwin und wurde schon 1935 in der Oper Porgy and Bess uraufgeführt. Die Klarinetten-Soli wurden von Richard Coles gespielt, mit dem Somerville später The Communards gründete. 1985 nahm Bronski Beat zusammen mit Marc Almond ein Medley auf, das sich aus den Liedern I Feel Love, Love to Love You Baby (beide im Original von Donna Summer) und Johnny Remember Me (im Original von John Leyton) zusammensetzte.

Im selben Jahr fand auch im Electric Ballroom in London das Benefizkonzert Pits and Perverts mit Bronski Beat als Hauptact statt. Das Konzert wurde von der Gruppe Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners im Zuge des Bergarbeiterstreiks 1984/'85 organisiert, um die Bergarbeiter finanziell gegen Margaret Thatcher zu unterstützen.[1]

Kurz danach verließ Somerville die Band und gründete mit Coles The Communards. Bei Bronski Beat stieg der Sänger John Foster ein, der deutlich unpolitischer war und nicht über eine solche prägnante Stimme wie Somerville verfügte. Die Single Hit That Perfect Beat war wieder ein großer Erfolg. Danach folgten das weniger erfolgreiche Lied C’mon! C’mon! und das Album Truthdare Doubledare. Danach wurde es ruhiger um die Gruppe, die 1989 noch einmal einen Top-40-Erfolg in Zusammenarbeit mit der US-amerikanischen Sängerin Eartha Kitt hatte.

1995 scheiterte ein Comebackversuch der Band mit dem Album Rainbow Nation, das Remixe alter Lieder und neue Songs enthält. Larry Steinbachek, der Perkussionist der Gruppe, starb im Dezember 2016 im Alter von 56 Jahren an den Folgen einer Krebserkrankung.[2] Steve Bronski starb im Dezember 2021 im Alter von 61 Jahren bei einem Wohnungsbrand.[3][4]

Diskografie

Studioalben

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5][6]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US
1984The Age of ConsentDE10
Gold
Gold

(31 Wo.)DE
CH7
(7 Wo.)CH
UK4
Platin
Platin

(53 Wo.)UK
US36
(25 Wo.)US
Erstveröffentlichung: 8. Oktober 1984
Produzent: Mike Thorne
1985Hundreds and ThousandsUK24
Silber
Silber

(6 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 9. September 1985
Produzent: Mike Thorne
Remixalbum, in den USA als EP erschienen
1986Truthdare DoubledareDE21
(9 Wo.)DE
AT20
(8 Wo.)AT
CH9
(5 Wo.)CH
UK18
(6 Wo.)UK
US147
(6 Wo.)US
Erstveröffentlichung: 28. April 1986
Produzent: Adam Williams

Weitere Alben

  • 1995: Rainbow Nation
  • 2017: The Age of Reason

Kompilationen

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5][6]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US
1990The Singles Collection 1984/1990DE4
Gold
Gold

(50 Wo.)DE
AT10
(13 Wo.)AT
CH4
Platin
Platin

(25 Wo.)CH
UK4
(26 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 12. November 1990
Jimmy Somerville, Bronski Beat und The Communards
2002The Very Best OfDE49
(1 Wo.)DE
UK29
Gold
Gold

(5 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 3. September 2001
Jimmy Somerville, Bronski Beat und The Communards

Weitere Kompilationen

  • 2009: For a Friend: The Best Of (Jimmy Somerville, Bronski Beat und The Communards; 2 CDs; VÖ: Juni)
  • 2014: Dance & Desire: Rarities & Videos (Jimmy Somerville, Bronski Beat und The Communards; 2 CDs + DVD; VÖ: 17. November)
  • 2018: The Age of Remix (VÖ: 30. März 2018)

Singles

JahrTitel
Album
Höchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5][6][7]
(Jahr, Titel, Album, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US Dance
1984Smalltown Boy
The Age of Consent
DE3
(20 Wo.)DE
CH2
(14 Wo.)CH
UK3
Platin
Platin

(18 Wo.)UK
US48
(16 Wo.)US
Dance1
(13 Wo.)Dance
Erstveröffentlichung: 21. Mai 1984
Autoren: Jimmy Somerville, Larry Steinbachek, Steve Bronski
Why?
The Age of Consent
DE5
(16 Wo.)DE
CH7
(9 Wo.)CH
UK6
Silber
Silber

(12 Wo.)UK
Dance27
(11 Wo.)Dance
Erstveröffentlichung: 10. September 1984
Autoren: Jimmy Somerville, Larry Steinbachek, Steve Bronski
It Ain’t Necessarily So
The Age of Consent
DE31
(9 Wo.)DE
UK16
(12 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 19. November 1984
Autoren: George und Ira Gershwin
Original: John W. Bubbles, 1935
1985I Feel Love (Medley)
The Age of Consent
DE16
(12 Wo.)DE
CH23
(3 Wo.)CH
UK3
Silber
Silber

(14 Wo.)UK
Dance20
(9 Wo.)Dance
Erstveröffentlichung: 8. April 1985
mit Marc Almond; Medley inkl. I Feel Love / Love to Love You Baby / Johnny Remember Me
Autoren: Donna Summer, Giorgio Moroder, Pete Bellotte, Geoffrey Goddard
Originale: Donna Summer, 1977/1975 / John Leyton, 1961
Hit That Perfect Beat
Truthdare Doubledare
DE4
(15 Wo.)DE
AT11
(12 Wo.)AT
CH3
(10 Wo.)CH
UK3
Silber
Silber

(14 Wo.)UK
Dance7
(10 Wo.)Dance
Erstveröffentlichung: 18. November 1985
Autoren: John Foster, Larry Steinbachek, Steve Bronski
1986C’mon! C’mon!
Truthdare Doubledare
DE32
(10 Wo.)DE
UK20
(7 Wo.)UK
Dance17
(7 Wo.)Dance
Erstveröffentlichung: 17. März 1986
Autoren: John Foster, Larry Steinbachek, Steve Bronski
1989Cha Cha HeelsUK32
(7 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 19. Juni 1989
mit Eartha Kitt, Autor: Steve Bronski
1991Smalltown Boy (1991 Remix)
The Singles Collection 1984/1990
DE28
(9 Wo.)DE
UK32
(4 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 21. Januar 1991
mit Jimmy Somerville, Remix: Stephen Hague

Weitere Singles

  • 1985: Run from Love
  • 1986: This Heart
  • 1990: I’m Gonna Run Away from You
  • 1991: One More Chance
  • 1991: What More Can I Say?
  • 1993: Why??? (Remix)
  • 1994: Smalltown Boy ’94
  • 1995: Kickin’ Up the Rain / Hit That Perfect Beat Boy ’95
  • 1995: Why ’95 / Kickin’ Up the Rain
  • 1995: I Luv the Nightlife / Hit That Perfect Beat Boy ’95
  • 1995: Megamix

Quellen

  1. Colin Clews: 1984. ‘Pits and Perverts’ Benefit Concert. In: gayinthe80s.com. 27. Mai 2013, abgerufen am 10. Dezember 2021 (englisch).
  2. Bronski Beat keyboardist Larry Steinbachek dies at 56. In: bbc.com. 12. Januar 2017, abgerufen am 10. Dezember 2021 (englisch).
  3. Steve Bronski ist tot. Von ihm hatten Bronski Beat ihren Namen. In: Spiegel Online. 9. Dezember 2021, abgerufen am 10. Dezember 2021.
  4. Steve Bronski carer says musician died in Soho flat fire. 13. Dezember 2021, abgerufen am 4. Januar 2022 (englisch).
  5. a b c Chartquellen: DE AT CH UK US
  6. a b c Gold-/Platin-Datenbanken: DE CH UK
  7. Joel Whitburn: Hot Dance/Disco 1974–2003, ISBN 978-0-89820-156-7.

Weblinks

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Bronski Beat ¦ The Age Of Consent
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