MF Doom ¦ Operation: Doomsday

CHF 63.00 inkl. MwSt

2LP (Album)

Noch 1 Exemplar(e) vorrätig

GTIN: 0829357009012 Artist: Genres & Stile: ,

Zusätzliche Information

Format

Inhalt

Extras

Label

Release

Veröffentlichung Operation: Doomsday:

1999

Hörbeispiel(e) Operation: Doomsday:

Operation: Doomsday auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

Operation: Doomsday is the debut studio album by British-American rapper MF DOOM, released through Fondle 'Em Records on 19 October 1999[2][3][4][5] and reissued by Sub Verse Records in 2001 with a slightly altered track listing.[6] It was his first solo release under the MF DOOM moniker after previously performing as Zev Love X in the group KMD. Operation: Doomsday is regarded as one of the most influential albums in independent hip-hop history.[7] A deluxe remastered version of the album was released by DOOM's own Metal Face Records on 24 October 2011.[8][9]

Background

Following his debut in the late-1980s, Daniel Dumile, then known as Zev Love X, suffered a series of unfortunate setbacks, including the death of his brother and fellow KMD member DJ Subroc and the subsequent abandonment of the group's second studio album Black Bastards by Elektra Records due to its political message and cover art.[10][11][12] After the untimely death of his brother and the disbanding of KMD in 1993, Zev Love X left the hip-hop community and would suffer years of homelessness and despair. In 1997 he would re-emerge as MF DOOM, covering his face at shows and releasing singles on Bobbito Garcia's label Fondle 'Em Records.[10] The three singles released generated enough buzz for Garcia to agree to sign DOOM for an album.

Recording and production

Operation: Doomsday was produced by Dumile, mostly over a three-week period in which he stayed at Garcia's apartment and borrowed his Akai MPC2000 workstation.[13] His eccentric record production maintains a left-field finish, often invoking mid-1980s quiet storm.[12][11] He incorporated a variety of musical styles onto the album, featuring an at times abstract mixture of 1980s soul and smooth jazz loops with vintage drum breaks.[14][11][15] DOOM's usage of smooth jazz loops served to alleviate muffled recording sounds while integrating cartoon samples and snippets.[15][12] For the most part, MF DOOM included minimal percussion to complement his musical selections, often rapping over their original musical backdrops.[12]

Music and lyrics

As an underground rap album, Operation: Doomsday is a lo-fi recording, with MF DOOM producing bedroom electro.[11][15] Despite being an earthly work born from tragedy, it revisits the cartoon pleasure of late-1980s hip-hop.[15] The debut album features dense rhyme schemes over tracks composed from a collage of R&B, cartoon samples and elevator music.[10][16] It is embroidered with an array of samples and snippets, ranging from Hanna-Barbera cartoon series Fantastic Four and Scooby-Doo to 1982 hip-hop film Wildstyle to English sophisti-pop band Sade.[15][12] Operation: Doomsday indulges in quiet storm balladry that evokes a sense of loss, expressing smooth jazz loops which bring balance to muffled soundscapes.[12][15] Throughout the album, MF DOOM effectually rhymes over the original musical backgrounds atop minimal percussion.[12]

The backstory of Operation: Doomsday is similar to that of Marvel Comics supervillain Dr. DOOM, with a series of terrible setbacks and tragedy culminating in the birth of a villainous persona.[11][17] After suffering the devastating death of his brother and the dropping of his group from their record label, MF DOOM, formerly known as Zev Love X, was left emotionally scarred. His lingering pain manifested in the form of a masked hip-hop supervillain who wishes to rule the world for its own good on Operation: Doomsday.[11][17] In addition, the debut album features thematic skits and interludes which continue the comic book narrative beginning in the opening track all through to a spoken word monologue by E. Mason alongside guest appearances from MF DOOM's Monsta Island Czars collective.[18][19] 

With an erratic thought process, MF DOOM delivers sharp-witted stream-of-consciousness rhymes in a deteriorating yet steadfastly murky flow.[12][10][20] At the center of Operation: DOOMsay lies a bent towards free-form lyricism and pop-culture references.[20] DOOM uses a raw and lyrically dexterous delivery to recite palatable, off-kilter rhymes containing obscure references.[11] His abstract rapping is laced with disparate word association grounded by tongue-in-cheek humor.[20] Much of the album's lyrical content displays MF DOOM in emotional disorder. The solo debut album acts as a lengthy exercise in musical therapy, with death hanging over throughout, both musically and lyrically.[12] Drawing from the weight of his past, Operation: Doomsday is compact with frank, sincere lyrics and hard, piercing rhymes.[11]

Release and promotion

After the departure of KMD from their label Elektra Records, MF DOOM released his solo debut album, Operation: Doomsday through the independent record label Fondle 'Em Records in 1999. The studio album was re-released through Sub Verse Music in 2001.[21]

It was announced on 16 December 2010 that Operation: Doomsday was being reissued in 2011. The reissue cover was designed by Jason Jagel, who did the art for Mm..Food.[22] It was reported that there were licensing issues with the original artwork, which was designed by the famed graffiti writer Keo X-Men,[citation needed] that caused problems with reissuing. Stones Throw Records stated that DOOM was working on a track-listing for the reissue.[23]

Critical reception

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic[11]
Alternative Press3/5[14]
The A.V. ClubA[24]
CMJ New Music Monthly(favorable)[25]
Muzik5/5[26]
NME6/10[27]
Pitchfork8.9/10[18]
Record Collector[15]
Spin8/10[12]
The Village VoiceB+[17]

Upon its release, Operation: Doomsday garnered praise from contemporary music journalists, and has since achieved status as a cult classic.[18] Alternative Press said the debut, "Places an insightful spin on DOOM's history on the rap game ... the mish-mashed musical styles that MF incorporates lend a bit of variety, and the generally lo-fi production values give the album character. Refreshing..."[14] Writing for The Village Voice, rock critic Robert Christgau remarked, "As concept, this could get tedious fast, but as a few skits it's one more scenic sonic on an album that reaches its high point when it samples not just the Scooby-Doo theme but Scoob himself, thus acknowledging that, as Scoob knows so well, some villains are just plain evil."[17] He concluded, "Right, the album never comes into full focus. But it does flow, as music and as signifying. Message: this smart guy had some horrible setbacks and came out on the other side. A role model, you might say."[17] AllMusic's Cyril Cordor stated, "For the hardcore DOOM fans, the recorded-in-the-basement quality is appealing and representative of his persona as the underdog who 'came to destroy rap.' ... Even though this album is certainly not for everyone, you can easily respect from where the man is coming."[11] Jason Draper of Record Collector opined, "DOOM may have become more accomplished – not least recording with Madlib and Danger Mouse – but this outside attack launched the bomb, and made MF DOOM the leftfield hero that he remains today."[15]

Pitchfork's Ian Cohen described the album as DOOM's "warmest and most benevolent work, almost entirely bled of the angrier material that would mark future releases." Their review of the 2011 reissue also called the album "a must-hear in just about any format."[18] In his review of the 2011 reissue, Nathan Rabin from The A.V. Club argued that since its initial release Operation: Doomsday has "attained mythic status; its legend has grown in proportion to its relative unavailability, and to DOOM’s ascent to cult godhood."[24] On the album's 20th anniversary, Stereogum described it as "an immediately engaging display of [DOOM's] raw talent as both a rapper and producer, as well as an engrossing origin story for the most popular of his many alter-egos."[28] In a less enthusiastic review, Spin writer Jon Caramanica claimed, "Sewn together with snippets from the Fantastic Four and Wildstyle, the album is a rambling exercise in musical therapy."[12] He concluded, "But DOOM ain't no joker: he’s merely fulfilling KMD's mythology ... six years too late."[12]

Accolades

PublicationCountryAccoladeYearRank
About.comUS100 Best Hip-Hop Albums[29]201597
ComplexUS25 Best Long Island Rap Albums[30]20125
Consequence of SoundUSTop 20 Hip-Hop Solo Albums[31]20139
FactUKThe 100 Best Albums of the 1990s[32]201237
100 Best Indie Hip-Hop Records of All Time[33]20156
Hip-Hop ConnectionUSThe 100 Greatest Rap Albums 1995-2005[34]20063
SpinUSBest Reissues of 2011[16]20128

Legacy

Operation: Doomsday has been heralded as an underground classic that established MF DOOM's rank within the underground hip-hop scene during the early to mid-2000s.[11] The album has had a vast, long-lasting influence on contemporary underground rap and independent hip-hop artists.[18][20] Writing for streaming service Tidal, Dylan Green and Donna-Claire Chesman called the album, "a blueprint for all of independent rap."[20] They cite the "dusty cartoon samples" of its lo-fi production, MF DOOM's preference for keeping anonymous, his "stream-of-consciousness flows" and the self-sustainance ethos that led to self-producing the entire studio album himself as essential elements both driving Operation: Doomsday as well as serving a source of inspiration for countless artists worldwide.[20]

Track listing

All tracks were written and produced by MF DOOM.

Side Zero[35]
No.TitleLength
1."The Time We Faced DOOM" (Skit)2:04
2."Doomsday" (featuring Pebbles the Invisible Girl)4:58
3."Rhymes Like Dimes" (featuring DJ Cucumber Slice)4:18
4."The Finest" (featuring Tommy Gunn)4:01
5."Back in the Days" (Skit)0:46
Side One
No.TitleLength
1."Go with the Flow"3:36
2."Tick, Tick…" (featuring MF Grimm)4:05
3."Red and Gold" (featuring King Ghidra)4:43
4."The Hands of DOOM" (Skit)1:52
5."Who You Think I Am?" (featuring X-Ray, Rodan, Megalon, K.D., King Ghidra, and Kong[a])3:24
Side Two
No.TitleLength
1."DOOM, Are You Awake?" (Skit)1:13
2."Hey!"3:47
3."Operation: Greenbacks" (featuring Megalon)3:49
4."The Mic"3:04
5."The Mystery of DOOM" (Skit)0:24
Side Three
No.TitleLength
1."Dead Bent"2:22
2."Gas Drawls"3:46
3."?" (featuring Kurious)3:09
4."Hero vs. Villain (Epilogue)" (featuring E.Mason)2:59
Total length:58:20
Side Three (2001 re-release)[21]
No.TitleLength
4."I Hear Voices" (Part One) (Bonus Track)3:03

Notes

  • MF DOOM is credited as a feature on the tracks "Red and Gold" and "Who You Think I Am?" under the alias "King Ghidra".

Personnel

Credits are adapted from the albums' liner notes.[b]

1999 Fondle 'Em Records release

Personnel

Additional personnel

Artwork

  • DOOM – illustration
  • Scotch 79 – art direction

2001 Sub Verse Music re-release

Personnel

  • Metal Fingers DOOM – production
  • D.J. Cucumber Slice – cuts (3), additional vocals (3)
  • Big Lou – co-production (10)
  • X-Ray da Mindbenda – co-production (2, 14)
  • Pebbles the Invisible Girl – additional vocals (2, 14)
  • Ill-Clown – co-production (4)

Additional personnel

  • Metal Fingers DOOM – mixing
  • MF DOOM – executive production
  • MF Grimm – executive production
  • Big Lou – executive production
  • Bobbito – executive production

Notes

  1. ^ Feature credits in the 2001 re-release are listed as King Ceasar, Rodan, Megalon, Kamakiras, and Kong
  2. ^ The three major releases of this album on Fondle 'Em Records, Sub Verse Music, and Metal Face Records each have different credits in their liner notes.[35][21][36]
  3. ^ Credited as "MF.Doom" on the 2008 Metal Face Records re-release.
  4. ^ Credited as "MF.Grim" on the 2008 Metal Face Records re-release.

References

  1. ^ Tick, Tick... (liner notes). MF DOOM; MF Grimm. New York, New York: Day by Day Entertainment. 2015.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  2. ^ Adams, Dart (19 April 2019). "MF DOOM 'Operation: Doomsday': A 20th Anniversary Retrospective". Medium. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  3. ^ Garcia, Robert (22 April 2020). "Had to repost this from last year ... Dear press/Wiki: Here's the invoice, dated August 9, 1999, for the original MF Doom debut album 'Operation Doomsday'". Instagram. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  4. ^ Garcia, Robert. "It came out 10/19/99, not today". Instagram. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  5. ^ Ducker, Jesse (19 October 2019). "MF DOOM's Debut Album 'Operation: Doomsday' Turns 20 | Anniversary Retrospective". Albumism. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  6. ^ "MF DOOM DISCOGRAPHY". Stones Throw. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006.
  7. ^ Caramanica, Jon (14 January 2021). "MF Doom, Magician of Memory". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  8. ^ Operation: Doomsday (liner notes). MF DOOM. Kennesaw, Georgia: Metal Face Records. 2011. MF1107.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  9. ^ "Operation: Doomsday [Deluxe Edition] (CD)". Amoeba Music. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d Hultkrans, Andrew (May 2011). "Reissues — MF Doom, 'Operation: Doomsday'". Spin. Vol. 27, no. 4. Spin Media LLC. p. 76.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cordor, Cyril. "Operation: Doomsday – MF DOOM". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Caramanica, Jon (August 2000). "KMD: Black Bastards / M.F. Doom: Operation Doomsday". Spin. 16 (8): 152–54. Archived from the original on 1 January 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  13. ^ Fu, Eddie (20 April 2019). "Knowledge Drop: MF DOOM Recorded 'Operation: Doomsday' On A Borrowed MPC In Three Weeks". Genius. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  14. ^ a b c Alternative Press (5 May 2001). "Indies". Billboard. Vol. 113, no. 18. p. 65.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Draper, Jason (May 2011). "MF DOOM – Operation Doomsday". Record Collector (388). Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  16. ^ a b Powell, Mike (January–February 2012). "Best Reissues of 2011". Spin. Spin Media LLC. p. 51.
  17. ^ a b c d e Christgau, Robert (7 August 2001). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e Cohen, Ian (25 April 2011). "MF DOOM: Operation Doomsday". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  19. ^ Juon, Steve 'Flash' (25 October 2000). "MF DOOM :: Operation: Doomsday". RapReviews. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Green, Dylan; Chesman, Donna-Claire (20 April 2019). "MF DOOM's 'Operation: Doomsday' is the Blueprint for Independent Hip-Hop". TIDAL Magazine. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  21. ^ a b c Operation: Doomsday (liner notes). MF DOOM. New York, New York: Sub Verse Music. 2001. SVM13.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  22. ^ "Jason Jagel for MF DOOM operation:doomsday Reissue". Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  23. ^ "A peek at MF DOOM's Operation Doomsday reissue in 2010". Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  24. ^ a b Rabin, Nathan (26 April 2011). "MF Doom: Operation Doomsday: Lunchbox". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  25. ^ Drumming, Neil (May–June 2001). "Reviews". CMJ New Music Monthly. No. 93. p. 85.
  26. ^ Ashon, Will (July 2001). "MF DOOM: Operation Doomsday (Subverse, USA)". Muzik (74): 145.
  27. ^ "MF DOOM: Operation Doomsday". NME: 41. 30 June 2001.
  28. ^ Lyons, Patrick (19 April 2019). "Operation: Doomsday Turns 20". Stereogum. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  29. ^ "100 Best Hip-Hop Albums (1/10)". About.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  30. ^ "The 25 Best Long Island Rap Albums – 5. MF DOOM, Operation: Doomsday (1998)". Complex. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  31. ^ "Top 20 Hip-Hop Solo Albums". Consequence of Sound. 23 October 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  32. ^ "The 100 Best Albums of the 1990s". FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  33. ^ "The 100 best indie hip-hop records of all time – 06. MF DOOM – Operation: Doomsday(Fondle 'Em, 1999)". Fact. 25 February 2015. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  34. ^ "HIP-HOP CONNECTION's 100 BEST ALBUMS 1995-2005". RateYourMusic. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  35. ^ a b Operation: Doomsday (liner notes). MF DOOM. New York, New York: Fondle 'Em Records. 1999. FE-86.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  36. ^ Operation: Doomsday (liner notes). MF DOOM. Kennesaw, Georgia: Metal Face Records. 2008. MF86.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)

External links

Artist(s)

Veröffentlichungen von MF Doom die im OTRS erhältlich sind/waren:

MM..Food ¦ Operation: Doomsday

MF Doom auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

Daniel Dumile[a] (/ˈdməl/ DOO-mə-lay; July 13, 1971[3] – October 31, 2020), best known by his stage name MF Doom or simply Doom (both stylized in all caps), was a British-American rapper and record producer. Noted for his intricate wordplay, signature metal mask, and "supervillain" stage persona, Dumile became a major figure of underground hip hop and alternative hip hop in the 2000s.[4][5] After his death, Variety described him as one of the scene's "most celebrated, unpredictable and enigmatic figures".[6]

Dumile was born in London and moved to Long Island, New York, at a young age. He began his career in 1988 as a member of KMD, performing as Zev Love X. The group disbanded in 1993 after the death of member DJ Subroc, Dumile's brother. After a hiatus, Dumile reemerged in the late 1990s. He began performing at open mic events while wearing a metal mask resembling that of the Marvel Comics supervillain Doctor Doom, who is depicted on the cover of his 1999 debut solo album Operation: Doomsday. He adopted the MF Doom persona and rarely made unmasked public appearances thereafter.

Between 2003 and 2005, Dumile released four solo albums and three collaborative albums. In addition to the critically acclaimed Mm..Food (2004) under the MF Doom moniker, he released solo albums including one under the pseudonym King Geedorah and two as Viktor Vaughn. Madvillainy (2004), recorded with the producer Madlib under the name Madvillain, is often cited as Dumile's magnum opus and is regarded as a landmark album in hip hop.[7] In 2005, Dumile released The Mouse and the Mask with the producer Danger Mouse as Danger Doom.

Though he lived the majority of his life in the United States, Dumile never gained American citizenship. In 2010, he was denied reentry after returning from an international tour for his sixth and final solo album, Born Like This (2009). He relocated to London and, in his final years, worked mostly in collaboration with other artists, releasing albums with Jneiro Jarel (as JJ Doom), Bishop Nehru (NehruvianDoom), and Czarface (Czarface Meets Metal Face and the posthumous Super What?). Dumile died in 2020 from angioedema following a reaction to a blood pressure medication.

Early life

Dumile was born in Hounslow, London, on July 13, 1971,[1][8][3] the son of a Trinidadian mother and Zimbabwean father.[5][9] He was the eldest of five children.[10] According to Dumile, he was conceived in the United States, and happened to be born in London because his mother was visiting family.[11] As a child, Dumile moved with his family to Long Island, New York, and grew up in Long Beach on Long Island.[12] He said he had no memory of his London childhood and his parents had no affiliation with British culture.[11] However, he remained a British citizen, never gaining American citizenship.[13]

Dumile began DJing during the summer after third grade.[14][15] As a child, he was a fan and collector of comic books and earned the nickname "Doom" (a phonetic play on the name Dumile) among friends and family.[16][17]

Career

1988–1997: KMD, Subroc's death, and hiatus

Dumile as Zev Love X (left) with fellow KMD members DJ Subroc and Onyx the Birthstone Kid in 1991

As Zev Love X,[18] Dumile formed the hip hop group KMD in 1988 with his younger brother DJ Subroc and Rodan, who was later replaced by Onyx the Birthstone Kid.[19] A&R representative Dante Ross learned of KMD through the hip hop group 3rd Bass and signed them to Elektra Records.[20] Their recording debut came on 3rd Bass's song "The Gas Face" on The Cactus Album,[19] followed in 1991 by their debut album Mr. Hood. Dumile performed the last verse on "The Gas Face"; according to Pete Nice's verse on the track, Dumile created the phrase.[21]

On April 23, 1993, just before the release of the second KMD album, Black Bastards,[19] Subroc was struck by a car and killed while crossing the Long Island Expressway.[22][23] Dumile completed the album alone over the course of several months, and it was announced with a release date of May 3, 1994.[24] KMD was dropped by Elektra and the album went unreleased due to its controversial cover art,[20] which featured a cartoon of a stereotypical pickaninny or sambo character being hanged.[25]

After his brother's death, Dumile retreated from the hip hop scene from 1994 to 1997, living "damn near homeless, walking the streets of Manhattan, sleeping on benches".[26] In the late 1990s, he settled in Atlanta; he had moved to Georgia in the mid-90s.[1] According to interviews with Dumile, he was "recovering from his wounds" and swearing revenge "against the industry that so badly deformed him".[19] Black Bastards had been bootlegged by that time,[25] but was not officially released until 2000.[27]

1997–2001: Operation: Doomsday and production work

In 1997 or 1998,[b] Dumile began freestyling incognito at open-mic events at the Nuyorican Poets Café in Manhattan, obscuring his face by putting tights over his head.[8][28] He turned this into a new identity, MF Doom, with a mask similar to that of Marvel Comics supervillain Doctor Doom.[29] He later used a mask based on the character Maximus from the 2000 film Gladiator.[30]

Bobbito Garcia's Fondle 'Em Records released Operation: Doomsday, Dumile's first full-length LP as MF Doom, in 1999.[31][32] Dumile's collaborators on Operation: Doomsday included fellow members of the Monsta Island Czars collective, for which each artist took on the persona of a monster from the Godzilla films. Dumile went by the alias "King Geedorah",[c] a three-headed golden dragon space monster modeled after King Ghidorah.[35] The album's productions sampled cartoons including Fantastic Four.[32] Jon Caramanica, in a review of Operation: Doomsday for Spin, emphasized the contrast between Dumile's flow as Zev Love X in KMD and his revised approach as a solo artist: "Doom's flow is muddy, nowhere near the sprightly rhymes of KMD's early days, and his thought process is haphazard."[31] Caramanica revisited Operation: Doomsday in The New York Times in 2021, calling it "one of the most idiosyncratic hip-hop albums of the 1990s, and one of the defining documents of the independent hip-hop explosion of that decade".[36] Cyril Cordor, in a review for AllMusic, described Operation: Doomsday as Dumile's "rawest" lyrical effort.[37]

In 2001, Dumile began releasing his Special Herbs instrumentals series under the pseudonym Metal Fingers.[38][39] In a review of a 2011 box set containing ten volumes of the Special Herbs series, Pitchfork observed that the instrumentals stand on their own without vocal tracks: "most of these tracks sound plenty 'finished' even in rhyme-less form".[39]

2002–2004: King Geedorah, Viktor Vaughn, and Madvillainy

Photo of a man with a short goatee and mustache wearing a durag
Madlib in late 2003, around the time he was working on Madvillainy with Dumile

In 2003, Dumile released the album Take Me to Your Leader under his King Geedorah moniker.[40][41] In Pitchfork, Mark Martelli described Take Me to Your Leader as close to a concept album, noting how it lays out the "mythos" of the eponymous King Geedorah.[42] Martelli praised the album, particularly tracks such as "One Smart Nigger" which, in his view, were superior to other artists' attempts at political hip hop.[42] Fact, in a brief notice for a 2013 reissue of Take Me to Your Leader, called it "arguably the most cinematic" of Dumile's albums from the turn of the 21st century.[43]

Later in 2003, Dumile released the LP Vaudeville Villain under the moniker Viktor Vaughn (another play on Doctor Doom, who is also known as Victor von Doom). NME described the Viktor Vaughn persona as "a time travelling street hustler".[44] Pitchfork named Vaudeville Villain the week's best new album and highlighted its lyricism, writing that Dumile was one of the best writers in rap.[45][46]

Dumile's breakthrough came in 2004 with the album Madvillainy, created with producer Madlib under the group name Madvillain.[47] They recorded the album in a series of sessions over two years before a commercial release on March 23, 2004.[48] Madvillainy was a critical and commercial success,[17] and has since become known as Dumile's masterpiece.[49]

Also in 2004, Dumile released VV:2, a follow-up LP under the Viktor Vaughn moniker. Nathan Rabin noted in The A.V. Club that VV:2, coming as it did after the commercial and critical success of Madvillainy, represented an unusual career choice for Dumile whereby he went "deeper underground" instead of embracing wider fame.[50]

Later in 2004, the second MF Doom album Mm..Food was released by Rhymesayers Entertainment.[49] Pitchfork gave the album a positive review.[51] Nathan Rabin described it as a "crazy pastiche" but argued that it grew more coherent on repeated listening.

2005–2009: Danger Doom, Born Like This, and Ghostface collaboration

Although still an independent artist, Dumile took a bigger step towards the mainstream in 2005 with The Mouse and the Mask, a collaboration with the producer DJ Danger Mouse under the group name Danger Doom. The album, released on October 11, 2005, by Epitaph and Lex, was developed in collaboration with Cartoon Network's Adult Swim and featured voice actors and characters from its programs (mostly Aqua Teen Hunger Force). The Mouse and the Mask reached #41 on the Billboard 200.[52] Critic Chris Vognar, discussing the role of comedy in hip hop, argued that "Doom and Danger exemplify an absurdist strain in recent independent hip-hop, a willingness to embrace the nerdy without a heavy cloak of irony".[53] [54] In the same year, Dumile appeared on the second Gorillaz album, Demon Days.[8]

Dumile produced tracks for both of Ghostface Killah's 2006 albums Fishscale[55] and More Fish.[56] In February 2013, Ghostface Killah said that he and Dumile were in the process of choosing tracks for a collaborative album.[57] In 2015, Ghostface Killah announced that the album, Swift & Changeable, would be released in 2016, and later posted promotional artwork for the collaboration.[58][59][60] It remains unreleased.

Dumile's Born Like This was released on Lex Records on March 24, 2009. The album was Dumile's first solo album to chart in the US.[61] In a largely favorable review for Pitchfork, Nate Patrin cast the album as a return to form for Dumile, following a period of limited output.[62] He observed that Dumile's lyrics and flow—"a focused rasp that's subtly grown slightly more ragged and intense"—were darker than on earlier records.[62] He also highlighted the overtly homophobic "Batty Boyz", a diss track against unnamed rappers.[62] Steve Yates, reviewing the album in The Guardian, likewise saw Born Like This as hearkening back to Dumile's earlier output.[63] Yates felt it presented Dumile at "his scalpel-tongued, scatter-mouthed best".[63] Both Patrin and Yates noted the influence of Charles Bukowski on Born Like This: the first line of Bukowski's poem "Dinosauria, We" gives the album its title.[62][63]

2010–2021: Move to London and later collaborations

Photo portrait of a man wearing a golden mask and hoodie, holding a sampler and pointing at the viewer
Dumile in 2008

In early 2010, Dumile released the EP Gazzillion Ear on Lex, a compilation of remixes of "Gazzillion Ear" from Born Like This, including a remix by Thom Yorke and two mixes by Jneiro Jarel.[64] A further remix by Madvillain featuring a voicemail message from Kanye West was released online.[65] The EP coincided with Dumile's first performances outside North America. On March 5, 2010, Lex and Sónar presented the first Doom show in London, at the Roundhouse in Camden.[66] Expektoration, Dumile's second live album, was released on September 14, 2010, through Gold Dust.[67] In a review of Expektoration, Pitchfork noted that Dumile's vocal performance was more energetic than on his recordings, which it characterized as "laidback" by comparison.[68]

After completing his European tour, Dumile was refused re-entry into the United States.[69][70] He settled in the UK in 2010.[71] Key to the Kuffs, an album Dumile made in collaboration with the producer Jneiro Jarel as JJ Doom, was released on August 20, 2012, and included guest features from Damon Albarn, Beth Gibbons of Portishead, Khujo Goodie of Goodie Mob and Dungeon Family, and Boston Fielder.[72] Reviews of Key to the Kuffs in Pitchfork and Fact emphasized its references to Dumile's "exile" in the United Kingdom,[73][74] while Resident Advisor noted its play on Britishisms in tracks like "Guv'nor".[75]

NehruvianDoom, Dumile's collaboration with the rapper Bishop Nehru, was released on October 7, 2014.[76] Dumile produced all the tracks on NehruvianDoom, often using beats developed in the Special Herbs series; vocals are primarily Nehru's, with some contributions from Dumile.[77] The album was Nehru's major label debut.[78] The limitations of Nehru's artistic achievement on the album were stressed by critics due to his relative youth (he was still in his teens when the album was produced) and the album's briefness, lasting just over 30 minutes.[78][79] Dumile's contributions were also seen as limited: Pitchfork wrote that he often seemed on "autopilot",[77] and XXL suggested that neither he nor Nehru were able to "push the envelope".[79]

In August 2017, Adult Swim announced a Doom compilation, The Missing Notebook Rhymes, that would consist of songs from his upcoming projects and featured appearances on other artists' songs. The Adult Swim website was to release one new song per week over the course of 15 weeks.[80] However, the arrangement was canceled in September after the release of only seven tracks.[81]

In February 2018, Dumile and Czarface released "Nautical Depth", the first single from their collaborative album Czarface Meets Metal Face.[82] The album was released on March 30, 2018. In a lukewarm review for Pitchfork, Mehan Jayasuriya compared verses by Open Mike Eagle favorably to Dumile's, but noted that Dumile's contribution to "Nautical Depth" exhibited his "once razor-sharp lyricism".[83] Ben Beaumont-Thomas, in The Guardian, was more positive, noting Dumile's "stoner surrealism" in "Captain Crunch".[84]

Aside from the album with Czarface, Dumile's musical output in the final three years of his life was limited to one-off guest appearances on other artists' tracks.[85] Posthumous releases included appearances on two songs for the video game Grand Theft Auto Online: "Lunch Break", with Flying Lotus;[86] and "The Chocolate Conquistadors", with BadBadNotGood, made for the game's content update The Cayo Perico Heist.[87] Shortly after Dumile's death was announced, Flying Lotus revealed that they had been working on an EP.[88] Having been completed in early 2020 but later delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Dumile's second collaborative album with Czarface and first posthumous release, Super What?, was released in May 2021.[89]

Style and artistry

Portrait illustration of a man with thinning hair wearing a metal mask and T-shirt
Portrait illustration of Dumile from a poster promoting his 2011 Born Like This tour of the UK

Dumile's lyrics are known for wordplay.[90][91] Bradley and DuBois, describing Dumile as "among the most enigmatic figures in hip-hop", wrote that Dumile's "raspy baritone weaves an intricate web of allusions drawn from comic books and metaphysics along with seeming nonsense and non sequiturs".[27] According to an obituary in The Ringer, his flow was "loose and conversational, but delivered with technical precision", and his use of rhyme and meter eclipsed that of Big Pun and Eminem.[85]

Dumile's production work frequently incorporated samples and quotations from film.[90][91] A review of Special Herbs volumes 5 and 6 in CMJ New Music Monthly compared Dumile's beats to "soul jazz".[92]

MF Doom persona

Dumile created the MF Doom character as an alter ego with a backstory he could reference in his music.[93] The character combines elements from the Marvel Comics supervillain Doctor Doom, Destro, and the Phantom of the Opera;[94] like Doctor Doom and Phantom, Dumile referred to himself in the third person while in character.[95] His signature mask was similar to that of Doctor Doom,[29] who is depicted rapping on the cover of Dumile's 1999 debut album Operation: Doomsday.[96]

Dumile wore the mask while performing, and would not be photographed without it, except for short glimpses in videos and in earlier photos with KMD.[97] Later versions of the mask were based on a prop from the 2000 film Gladiator.[98] Academic Hershini Bhana Young argued that, by appropriating the Doctor Doom mask, Dumile "positions himself as enemy, not only of the music industry but also of dominant constructions of identity that relegate him as a black man to second-class citizenship".[29]

Dumile sometimes sent stand-ins to perform in the mask, which he saw as a "logical extension" of the concept but angered audiences.[93] Dumile initially claimed that he had lost weight and thus looked and sounded different.[99] At a 2010 show in Toronto, an imposter was booed off stage before being replaced by Dumile.[100] In an interview with The New Yorker, Dumile described himself as the "writer and director" of the character and that he "might send a white dude next ... Whoever plays the character plays the character."[93]

In November 2019, during his performance at the Adult Swim Festival, the electronic artist Flying Lotus announced that he would be joined onstage by Dumile. Instead, the masked figure who appeared on stage was revealed as the comedian Hannibal Buress. Dumile's involvement in the prank has not been confirmed.[101]

Legacy and influence

Mural depicting MF Doom in Deptford, London

Dumile is considered one of the most celebrated and influential musicians in hip hop.[6][102] The English musician Thom Yorke, who collaborated with Dumile on two occasions, wrote: "He was a massive inspiration to so many of us, changed things... For me the way he put words was often shocking in its genius, using stream of consciousness in a way I'd never heard before."[103] Stereogum, reviewing Operation: Doomsday on its 20th anniversary, noted Dumile's "formative" influence on younger rappers.[94] El-P of Run the Jewels described him as a "writer's writer",[104] while Q-Tip called him "your favorite rapper's favorite rapper".[105]

Personal life

Dumile's worldview was informed by Islam and the Afrocentrism espoused by African-American Muslims. His parents raised him and his brother as Muslims in the Five-Percent Nation, a religious black nationalist movement influenced by Islam.[26] Dumile's father taught him about pan-African history, including historical figures such as Marcus Garvey and Elijah Muhammad—lessons that he then strove to impart upon his peers.[106] By the early 1990s, Dumile and the other members of KMD identified as a member of the Ansaar Allah Community, later known as the Nuwaubian Nation.[107] In their music, the members of KMD professed a religious message based on tenets of Nuwaubianism, which Dumile distinguished from Five-Percent beliefs in an early interview.[108] In the music video for "Peachfuzz", Dumile and the other members of KMD wear kufi caps.[109] By 2000, though he was no longer as strictly observant, Dumile still participated in Nuwaubian events such as the Savior's Day celebration at the Tama-Re compound in Georgia and held a positive opinion of the community.[110]

Dumile was married to Jasmine Dumile for an unknown period until his death in October 2020. The couple had five children.[2] Dumile's son Malachi died at the age of 14 from unspecified causes in late 2017.[111]

Although Dumile lived in the United States for most of his life, he never became a naturalized citizen.[70][112] He acquired a British passport prior to his 2010 European tour; after completing the tour later that year, he was refused re-entry to the United States.[113] The European tour was only his second international tour, and he had previously avoided leaving the United States; he had believed he would be able to secure reentry based on his long-term residency and family connections.[113] The denial of reentry forced Dumile apart from his wife and children, and for nearly two years he saw them only via video calls or during their brief visits to the United Kingdom. They were reunited when his family moved to London in 2012.[5] That year, Dumile said he was "done with the United States".[113] At the time of his death, he was living in Leeds.[2]

Death

In October 2020, Dumile was admitted to St James's University Hospital in Leeds, England, after suffering respiratory problems.[114] On October 31, he died from angioedema, a rare reaction to a blood pressure medication he had been recently prescribed. He had suffered from high blood pressure and kidney disease.[114] Due to the COVID-19 lockdown, Dumile's wife, Jasmine, was not allowed to visit him in the hospital until the day of his death.[114] Jasmine announced Dumile's death on December 31, 2020.[115] The cause of death was not announced until July 2023.[114]

Many musicians made tributes to Dumile.[116][117] United States President Joe Biden included Dumile's 2004 track "Coffin Nails" in his inauguration playlist.[118] The decision was criticized by some of Dumile's fans, as Biden was part of the Obama administration, which had barred him from returning to the United States.[119]

Selected discography

Solo albums

Collaborative albums

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dumile's birth certificate provides his name as "Dumile Daniel Thompson". Variations like "Daniel Dumile Thompson" and "Dumile Thompson Dumile" appear in other records. In his life as a public figure, "Daniel Dumile" was the name most commonly used to refer to him.[1]
  2. ^ Sources differ on when precisely Dumile first performed with his face obscured.
  3. ^ Also spelled "Ghidora"[33] or "Ghidra".[34]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Yoo, Noah (June 22, 2021). "Untangling MF DOOM's Lifelong Struggle With the U.S. Immigration System". Pitchfork. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Robinson, Andrew (July 4, 2023). "Heartbroken wife of famous musician has unanswered question after sudden death in Leeds". LeedsLive. Retrieved July 4, 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Everyone, Including Us, Thought January 9th was MF DOOM's Birthday – It's Not". Okayplayer. January 9, 2021. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  4. ^ Weingarten, Christopher R. (January 12, 2021). "MF Doom Influenced Scores of Musicians. Hear 11 of Them". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Lester, Paul (August 16, 2012). "Doom: 'It's all new, all fun'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.ProQuest 1033747721. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Barker, Andrew; Moreau, Jordan (December 31, 2020). "Rapper MF Doom Dies at 49". Variety. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  7. ^ Strauss, Matthew (December 31, 2020). "MF DOOM Dead at 49". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c "MF Doom: Hip-hop star dies aged 49". BBC News. December 31, 2020. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  9. ^ Allah, Sha Be (January 9, 2020). "Happy 48th Birthday to the Legendary MF Doom". The Source. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  10. ^ "A candid interview with DOOM from 2014 | Sampleface". sampleface.co.uk. January 9, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  11. ^ a b Mlynar, Phillip (August 16, 2012). "A Revealing DOOM Q&A: Supervillain on Nas' Pool Parties, His Rap-Hating Mom". Spin. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  12. ^ Levine, Mike (September 3, 2014). "MF Doom". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.a2267192.
  13. ^ Morrison, Sean (December 31, 2020). "Rapper and producer MF Doom dies aged 49". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  14. ^ Paine, Jake (November 28, 2018). "This 2003 Conversation With MF DOOM Is The Interview Of His Career". Ambrosia For Heads. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  15. ^ "DOOM". Red Bull Music Academy. 2011. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  16. ^ Coleman, Brian (April 10, 2016). "Check The Technique: The Birth of MF Doom". Medium. Archived from the original on November 15, 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  17. ^ a b Allen, Ryan. "MF Doom". Contemporary Musicians. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  18. ^ Sanneh, Kelefa (April 7, 2004). "That Man in a Mask, With Labyrinthine Rhymes to Cast". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d LeRoy, Dan. "Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  20. ^ a b Coleman, Brian (2004). "Turn Up the Phonograph: Dante Ross". Wax Poetics. 9. ISBN 9780307494429. ISSN 1537-8241. OCLC 48433218.
  21. ^ Chick, Stevie (January 1, 2021). "MF Doom: a hip-hop genius who built his own universe of poetry". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 3, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  22. ^ Turner-Williams, Jaelani (November 15, 2019). "Impending DOOM: 'MM...FOOD' Warned You 15 Years Ago". Complex. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  23. ^ Fortune, Drew (January 28, 2021). "The Unknowable MF DOOM". Vulture. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  24. ^ Coleman, Brian (April 10, 2016). "Check The Technique: The Birth of MF Doom". Medium. Archived from the original on November 15, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  25. ^ a b Ducker, Eric (November 6, 2014). "A Rational Conversation: The 20-Year-Old Album That's MF DOOM's Missing Link". NPR. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  26. ^ a b Hsu 2005, p. 48.
  27. ^ a b Bradley & DuBois 2010, p. 606.
  28. ^ Nemtusak, Brian (August 12, 2004). "MF Doom". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c Young 2014, p. 59.
  30. ^ Watson, Elijah C. (January 10, 2019). "MF DOOM Discusses Origins Of His Mask, Changing His Name To DOOM And More In Resurfaced Interview". okayplayer.com. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  31. ^ a b Caramanica, Jon (August 2000). "Operation: Doomsday". Spin: 152.
  32. ^ a b Allah, Sha Be (April 20, 2020). "MF DOOM's Debut Album 'Operation Doomsday' Dropped 21 Years Ago". The Source. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  33. ^ Greenbacks / Go With the Flow (liner notes). MF DOOM. New York, New York: Fondle 'Em Records. 1997. FE-0082.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  34. ^ Operation: Doomsday (liner notes). MF DOOM. New York, New York: Fondle 'Em Records. 1999. FE-86.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  35. ^ Adams, Jacob (January 30, 2012). "Rediscover: King Geedorah: Take Me to Your Leader". Spectrum Culture. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  36. ^ Caramanica, Jon (January 14, 2021). "MF Doom, Magician of Memory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  37. ^ Cordor, Cyril. "Operation: Doomsday – MF Doom". AllMusic. Archived from the original on January 4, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  38. ^ Hughes, Josiah (January 14, 2011). "DOOM Compiles Special Herbs on LP Box Set". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  39. ^ a b Harvell, Jess (February 25, 2011). "Metal Fingers / DOOM: Special Herbs: The Box Set Vol. 0–9". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  40. ^ Martelli, Mark (July 7, 2003). "King Geedorah: Take Me to Your Leader". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  41. ^ "MF DOOM's classic King Geedorah album Take Me To Your Leader re-pressed for 2013". Fact. April 29, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  42. ^ a b Martelli, Mark (July 1, 2003). "King Geedorah: Take Me to Your Leader". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  43. ^ "MF DOOM's classic King Geedorah album Take Me To Your Leader re-pressed for 2013". Fact. April 29, 2013. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  44. ^ Saleh, Oumar (January 11, 2021). "Why 'Vaudeville Villain' is MF DOOM's undersung masterpiece". NME. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  45. ^ Pemberton, Rollie (September 15, 2003). "Viktor Vaughn: Vaudeville Villain". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  46. ^ Sylvester, Nick (November 15, 2004). "MF DOOM: Mm..Food? Album Review". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  47. ^ "MF DOOM and Madlib Drop 'Madvillainy' Album 15 Years Ago Today". XXL. March 23, 2015. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  48. ^ Thurm, Eric (March 11, 2014). "A decade on, Madvillainy is still a masterpiece from hip-hop's illest duo". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  49. ^ a b Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (December 31, 2020). "MF Doom, iconic masked hip-hop MC, dies aged 49". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  50. ^ Rabin, Nathan (July 26, 2004). "Viktor Vaughn: VV:2 Venomous Villain". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on November 24, 2019. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  51. ^ Sylvester, Nick (November 15, 2004). "MF DOOM: Mm..Food?". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  52. ^ "Danger Doom Hopes To Make Second CD". Billboard. October 19, 2005. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  53. ^ Vognar 2011, p. 120.
  54. ^ Rabin, Nathan (November 29, 2004). "MF Doom: Mm.. Food?". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  55. ^ Partridge, Kenneth (March 29, 2016). "Ghostface Killah's 'Fishscale' at 10: Classic Track-by-Track Album Flashback". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  56. ^ Dombal, Ryan (December 14, 2006). "Ghostface Killah: More Fish". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  57. ^ Harling, Danielle (February 14, 2013). "Ghostface Killah Offers An Update On His Project With MF DOOM, Tells Fans To "Prepare" Themselves". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  58. ^ Weinstein, Max (February 11, 2016). "Ghostface Killah Teases 'DOOMSTARKS' Album With DOOM". XXL. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  59. ^ Goddard, Kevin (December 28, 2015). "Ghostface Killah Says Joint Project with Doom Could Be Dropping in February". HotNewHipHop. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  60. ^ Hughes, Josiah (February 11, 2016). "Is This The Cover for Ghostface and DOOM's Collaborative Album?". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  61. ^ Paine, Jake (April 1, 2009). "Hip Hop Album Sales: The Week Ending 3/29/2009". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  62. ^ a b c d Patrin, Nate (April 6, 2009). "DOOM: Born Like This". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  63. ^ a b c Yates, Steve (March 15, 2009). "Urban review: DOOM, Born Like This". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  64. ^ Patrin, Nate (January 7, 2010). "Reviews: DOOM Gazzillion Ear EP". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  65. ^ Breihan, Tom (December 17, 2009). "DOOM Links Up With Kanye, Mos Def". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  66. ^ Davies, Rodrigo (March 6, 2010). "Review: Doom, Enigmatic rapper lifts Sonar curtain". BBC 6Music. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
  67. ^ Henderson, Stuart (September 13, 2010). "MF Doom: Expektoration... Live (featuring Big Benn Klingon)". PopMatters. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  68. ^ Patrin, Nate (September 17, 2010). "MF DOOM: Expektoration Live". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  69. ^ Westhoff, Ben (June 24, 2015). "Doom: hip-hop's great pretender poised for another reinvention". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  70. ^ a b Coleman, C. Vernon (February 5, 2019). "7 Rappers Who Have Faced Deportation". XXL. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  71. ^ Fletcher, Lily (January 18, 2021). "MF Doom: Rapper whose work continues to have far-reaching influence". The Independent. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  72. ^ Martin, Andrew (July 5, 2012). "JJ DOOM Reveal "Key To The Kuffs" Release Date, Tracklist". Complex. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  73. ^ Patrin, Nate (August 29, 2012). "JJ DOOM: Key to the Kuffs". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  74. ^ Morpurgo, Joseph (September 6, 2012). "Keys to the Kuffs". Fact. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  75. ^ Lawrence, James (September 11, 2012). "Review: JJ DOOM – Key to the Kuffs". Resident Advisor. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  76. ^ "Bishop Nehru and DOOM are now releasing an album, NehruvianDOOM". Fact. April 4, 2014. Archived from the original on October 12, 2020. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  77. ^ a b Patrin, Nate (September 29, 2014). "NehruvianDOOM: NehruvianDOOM". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 3, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  78. ^ a b Charity, Justin (September 30, 2014). "Bishop Nehru and MF DOOM's "NehruvianDOOM" Is the Beginning of Something Great". Complex. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  79. ^ a b "Bishop Nehru And MF Doom Tap Into Their Strengths On 'NehruvianDOOM'". XXL. October 6, 2014. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  80. ^ Weinstein, Max (August 7, 2017). "MF DOOM to Drop 15 New Songs With Adult Swim". XXL. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  81. ^ Ross, Alex Robert (September 27, 2017). "DOOM and Adult Swim Abruptly End Their Relationship". Vice. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  82. ^ Gordon, Arielle (February 8, 2018). "MF Doom & Czarface – "Nautical Depth"". Spin. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  83. ^ Jayasuriya, Mehan (April 2, 2018). "Czarface / MF DOOM: Czarface Meets Metal Face". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 4, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  84. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (March 30, 2018). "Czarface & MF Doom: Czarface Meets Metal Face review – action-filled hip-hop supersquad". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  85. ^ a b Sayles, Justin (January 1, 2021). "MF Doom and the Mask That Left Hip-Hop Forever Changed". The Ringer. Archived from the original on January 3, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  86. ^ Gregory, Allie (December 16, 2020). "Listen to Flying Lotus and MF DOOM's 'GTA V' Radio Song "Lunch Break"". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  87. ^ Minsker, Evan (December 18, 2020). "MF DOOM and BADBADNOTGOOD Share New Song From Grand Theft Auto". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  88. ^ Waite, Thom (January 2, 2021). "Flying Lotus was working on an EP with MF Doom prior to the rapper's death". Dazed. Archived from the original on January 2, 2021.
  89. ^ Darville, Jordan (May 5, 2021). "A new Czarface/MF DOOM album is out this week". The Fader. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  90. ^ a b McMahon, James (January 1, 2021). "MF DOOM, 1971 – 2020: rap hero who styled himself as a supervillain". NME. Archived from the original on January 4, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  91. ^ a b Jacobs, Julia (December 31, 2020). "MF Doom, Masked Rapper With Intricate Rhymes, Is Dead at 49". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  92. ^ Gladstone, Neil (2004). "MF Doom: Special Herbs Vols. 5 & 6". CMJ New Music Monthly. 123: 42. ISSN 1074-6978.
  93. ^ a b c Coates, Ta-Nehisi (September 21, 2009). "The Mask of Metal Face Doom". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  94. ^ a b Lyons, Patrick (April 19, 2019). "'Operation: Doomsday' Turns 20". Stereogum. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  95. ^ Jenkins, Craig (January 4, 2021). "Hip-Hop Needs No Other Supervillain After MF DOOM". Vulture. Archived from the original on January 30, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  96. ^ "Masked rapper MF Doom dead at 49". CBC News. Associated Press. December 31, 2020. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  97. ^ LeRoy, Dan. "Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  98. ^ Ryon, Sean (July 27, 2012). "Graffiti Writer KEO Discusses Origin And Creation Of MF DOOM's Mask". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  99. ^ Ortiz, Edwin (October 21, 2008). "MF DOOM Addresses Rumors Of Fake Performances". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on July 3, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  100. ^ Tardio, Andres (March 9, 2010). "Promoter Says DOOM Impostors Are "Intentional"". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  101. ^ Minsker, Evan (November 17, 2019). "Hannibal Buress Was an MF DOOM Imposter at Adult Swim Festival: Watch". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  102. ^ Gottsegen, Will (January 2, 2021). "MF Doom, Masked Mythmaker". Complex. Archived from the original on January 2, 2021.
  103. ^ Kreps, Daniel (January 2, 2021). "Thom Yorke Pays Tribute to MF DOOM: 'A Massive Inspiration to So Many of Us'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 2, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  104. ^ Strauss, Matthew (December 31, 2020). "MF DOOM Remembered by Tyler, the Creator, Flying Lotus, El-P, and More". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  105. ^ Bennett, Jessica (January 1, 2021). "Rapper MF DOOM dead at 49". news.com.au. NYPost. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  106. ^ Pappademas 2004, p. 97.
  107. ^ Fuertes-Knight, Jo (June 14, 2013). "The Evolution of MF Doom". vice.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  108. ^ Wilder 1991, p. 37.
  109. ^ Pappademas 2004, p. 96.
  110. ^ Heimlich, Adam (November 8, 2000). "Black Egypt: A Visit to Tama-Re". New York Press. Vol. 13, no. 45. Archived from the original on November 9, 2005.
  111. ^ Rose, Sandra (January 1, 2021). "Rapper MF DOOM's cause of death revealed". sandrarose.com. Retrieved September 11, 2022.
  112. ^ Suarez, Gary (February 7, 2019). "21 Savage's ICE Detention Spotlights Hip-Hop's History With Deportation". Vibe.ProQuest 2176981232.
  113. ^ a b c Yates, Steve (April 2012). "The Exile Factor". Q. No. 309. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020 – via Photobucket (scan of original print article).
  114. ^ a b c d Dunworth, Liberty (July 5, 2023). "MF Doom's cause of death revealed". NME. Retrieved July 5, 2023.
  115. ^ Atkinson, Katie (December 31, 2020). "Masked Rapper MF Doom Dies at 49". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  116. ^ "Here's How The World Reacted To MF DOOM's Passing". Cool Accidents Music Blog. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  117. ^ "Tributes paid to legendary rapper MF DOOM, who has died aged 49". NME. December 31, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  118. ^ Kaufman, Gil (January 15, 2021). "Official Biden/Harris Inauguration Playlist Features Kendrick Lamar, Bob Marley, MF Doom, Led Zeppelin". Billboard. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  119. ^ "MF DOOM fans hit out at his inclusion on Joe Biden's inauguration playlist". NME. January 18, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2022.

Sources

Further reading

External links

MF Doom ¦ Operation: Doomsday
CHF 63.00 inkl. MwSt