The Clash & Ranking Roger ¦ Rock The Casbah

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Veröffentlichung Rock The Casbah:

2022

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Rock The Casbah auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

„Rock the Casbah„
The Clash Rock the Casbah single cover.png
Picture sleeve for original 1982 single release
Single by The Clash
from the album Combat Rock
B-side„Long Time Jerk“
Released1982
Genre
Length3:42
6:35 (extended version)
Label
Songwriter(s)Topper Headon, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones
Producer(s)The Clash
The Clash singles chronology
Know Your Rights
(1982)
Rock the Casbah
(1982)
Should I Stay or Should I Go“ / „Straight to Hell
(1982)
The Clash reissued singles chronology
„„Should I Stay or Should I Go“ (rerelease)“
(1991)
„Rock the Casbah“ (rerelease)
(1991)
„„London Calling“ (2nd rerelease)“
(1991)
Audio sample
The Clash „Rock the Casbah“ (1982)
Music video
„Rock the Casbah“ on YouTube
Audio
„Rock the Casbah“ on YouTube

Rock the Casbah“ is a song by the English punk rock band The Clash, released in 1982. The song was released as the second single from their fifth album, Combat Rock. It reached number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the US (their second and last top 40 and only top 10 single in the United States) and, along with the track „Mustapha Dance“, it also reached number eight on the dance chart.[4]

Recording

„Rock the Casbah“ was composed by the band’s drummer Topper Headon, based on a piano part that he had been toying with.[5][6] Finding himself in the studio without his three bandmates, Headon progressively taped the drum, piano and bass parts, recording the bulk of the song’s musical instrumentation himself.[5][7]

This origin makes „Rock the Casbah“ different from the majority of Clash songs, which tended to originate with music written by the Joe StrummerMick Jones songwriting partnership.[7] Upon entering the studio to hear Headon’s recording, the other Clash members were impressed with his creation, stating that they felt the musical track was essentially complete.[7] From this point, relatively minor overdubs were added, such as guitars and percussion.

However, Strummer was not impressed by the page of suggested lyrics that Headon gave him.[5] According to Clash guitar technician Digby Cleaver, they were „a soppy set of lyrics about how much he missed his girlfriend“.[5] „Strummer just took one look at these words and said, ‚How incredibly interesting!‘, screwed the piece of paper into a ball and chucked it backwards over his head.“[5]

Strummer had been developing a set of lyrical ideas that he was looking to match with an appropriate tune. Before hearing Headon’s music, Strummer had already come up with the phrases „rock the casbah“ and „you’ll have to let that raga drop“, as lyrical ideas that he was considering for future songs.[8][9] After hearing Headon’s music, Strummer went into the studio’s toilets and wrote lyrics to match the song’s melody.[6][7]

The version of the song on Combat Rock, as well as many other Clash compilations, features an electronic sound effect beginning at the 1:52-minute point of the song. This noise is a monophonic version of the song „Dixie“. The sound effect source was generated by the alarm from a digital wristwatch that Mick Jones owned, and was intentionally added to the recording by Jones.[7]

Lyrics

Joe Strummer had been toying with the phrase „rock the casbah“ prior to hearing Topper Headon’s musical track that would form the basis of the song. This phrase had originated during a jam session with Strummer’s violinist friend Tymon Dogg. Dogg began playing Eastern scales with his violin and Strummer started shouting „rock the casbah!“ Not hearing Strummer properly, Dogg thought that Strummer had been shouting at him to „stop, you cadger!“[8]

Further inspiration for the lyrics of „Rock the Casbah“ originated from Strummer observing the band’s manager Bernie Rhodes moaning about The Clash’s increasing tendency to perform lengthy songs. Rhodes asked the band facetiously „does everything have to be as long as this rāga?“ (referring to the Indian musical style known for its length and complexity). Strummer later returned to his room at the Iroquois Hotel in New York City and wrote the opening lines to the song: „The King told the boogie-men ‚you have to let that rāga drop.‘ “[10][9][8]

The song gives a fabulist account of a ban on Western rock music by an Arab king.[5] The lyrics describe the king’s efforts to stop his population from listening to this music, such as ordering his military’s jet fighters to bomb any people in violation of the ban. The pilots ignore the orders, and instead play rock music on their cockpit radios. The population then proceed to „rock the casbah“ by dancing to the music. This scenario was inspired by the ban on Western music in Iran after the 1979 Islamic Revolution.[citation needed]

The song’s lyrics feature various Arabic, Hebrew, Turkish, and Sanskrit loan-words, such as „sharif“, „bedouin“, „sheikh“, „kosher“, „rāga“, „muezzin“, „minaret“, and „casbah“.[11]

Single

The single version has more pronounced bass. Also when Joe Strummer screams „The crowd caught a whiff / Of that crazy casbah jive“ at the end of the third verse the word „jive“ is sustained for several seconds with digital delay.[citation needed] Additionally, the sound effects of the jet fighters in the last verse are lower in the mix, particularly just after „drop your bombs between the minarets.“ The single version of the song is what is played in the music video. „Mustapha Dance“, which features in many releases of the single, is an instrumental remix of the song.

Single issues

The single has several issues, all with different cover, format and B-side (see the table below).[12]

YearB-sideFormatLabelCountryNote
1982„Rock the Casbah“45 rpm 7″ vinylEpic 34-03245CAN/USAPromo
1982„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 12″ vinylCBS/Sony Records Inc. 07.5P-191JP
1982„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 7″ vinylEpic 49-03144USA
1982„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 12″ vinylEpic 49-03144CAN
1982„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 7″ vinylCBS A112479UKPicture disc
1982„Red Angel Dragnet“45 rpm 7″ vinylEpic 34-03245CAN
1982„Long Time Jerk“45 rpm 7″ vinylEpic 34-03245USAIn blue Epic generic die cut sleeve
1982„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 12″ vinylCBS A 13-2479UK
1982„Long Time Jerk“45 rpm 7″ vinylEpic 15-05540USA
1991„Mustapha Dance“45 rpm 7″ vinylColumbia 656814-7UKReissue
1991
  1. „Mustapha Dance“
  2. „The Magnificent Dance“
45 rpm 12″ vinylColumbia 656814-6UK
1991
  1. „Mustapha Dance“
  2. „The Magnificent Dance“
CDColumbia 656814-2UK

Music video

The music video for „Rock the Casbah“ was filmed in Austin, Texas by director Don Letts on 8 and 9 June 1982.[13] It intermixes footage of The Clash (with Terry Chimes on the drums) miming a performance of the song, with a storyline depicting two characters travelling together throughout Texas. The video depicts a Muslim hitchhiker and a Hasidic Jewish limo driver befriending each other on the road and skanking together through the streets to a Clash concert at Austin’s City Coliseum. Throughout the video, an armadillo appears at points. At one point they are seen eating hamburgers in front of a Burger King restaurant. At another point, the Muslim character is seen drinking a beer; Letts stated that all that imagery was „about breaking taboos.“[14]

The Clash is shown miming a performance of the song in front of a pumpjack in a Texas oil field. For most of the video clip, guitarist Mick Jones’s face is obscured by a veiled camouflage hat. The reason for this is that Jones was in a bad mood during the film shoot.[13] Jones‘ face remains hidden until the final 30 seconds of the clip, when Strummer pulls the hat off at the „he thinks it’s not kosher!“ line.

Legacy

The song was chosen by Armed Forces Radio to be the first song broadcast on the service covering the area during Operation Desert Storm. In one of the campfire scenes late in the 2007 documentary Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten, a friend states that Strummer wept when he heard that the phrase „Rock the Casbah“ was written on an American bomb that was to be detonated on Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War.[15]

Following the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the song was placed on the list of post-9/11 inappropriate titles distributed by Clear Channel.[16] In 2006, the conservative National Review released their list of the top 50 „Conservative Rock Songs“, with „Rock the Casbah“ at number 20, noting the Clear Channel list as well as frequent requests to the British Forces Broadcasting Service during the Iraq War.[17] Cultural reviewer and political analyst Charlie Pierce commented that „the notion of the Clash as spokesfolk for adventurism in the Middle East might have been enough to bring Joe Strummer back from the dead.“[18]

Vulture writer Bill Wyman in 2017 ranked the song number ten of all the band’s 139 songs, calling it „one of the greatest rock singles of all time.“[19] Wyman further wrote, „Like other Clash songs, this song requires some historical context“ about Iran, starting from the 1953 coup d’état—which overthrew the democratically elected leader Mohammad Mosaddegh—to the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which resulted in overthrowing the rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, king of the Imperial State of Iran, and the hostage crisis at the U.S. embassy in Tehran, rupturing their diplomatic relations—followed by Jimmy Carter, who was criticized for the way he handled the hostage crisis, losing the 1980 U.S. presidential election to Ronald Reagan.[19]

Cover versions

The Algerian rock singer Rachid Taha covered the song (in Arabic) on his 2004 album Tékitoi. On 27 November 2005 at the Astoria, London, during the Stop the War Coalition Benefit Concert, „...for the night’s grandstanding conclusion, the Clash legend Mick Jones strides on in a skinny black suit and plays probably the most exciting guitar he has delivered in years. He and the band are brilliant on Taha’s definitive take on „Rock the Casbah“, for which the audience goes berserk.“[20] They again played Taha’s version of the song, „Rock el Casbah“, in February 2006, at the France 4 TV show Taratatà.[citation needed] In 2007 at the Barbican, „.... The band were later joined by special guest Mick Jones from The Clash who performed on „Rock El Casbah“ and then stayed on stage for the remainder of the show.“[21][22]

Charts

Certifications

RegionCertificationCertified units/sales
Italy (FIMI)[39]Gold25,000double-dagger
United Kingdom (BPI)[40]Platinum600,000double-dagger
United States (RIAA)[41]2× Platinum2,000,000double-dagger

double-dagger Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Personnel

References

  1. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. „The Clash – Combat Rock“. AllMusic. Retrieved 24 June 2013. the infectious, dance-inflected new wave pop of „Rock the Casbah“
  2. ^ Keefe, Michael (15 June 2010). „Combat Rock (CD) – The Clash“. Amoeba Music. Retrieved 24 June 2013. ragga-tinged new wave anthem „Rock the Casbah“
  3. ^ „12 of the Most Underrated Punk Songs of All-Time“. GIANT. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  4. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Hot Dance/Disco: 1974–2003. Record Research. p. 59.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Gilbert 2004, p. 306.
  6. ^ a b Webb, Spike (23 January 2014). Topper Headon (The Clash) – Q&A – Fan Questions (Interview). 00:24 minutes in. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e Webb, Spike (3 May 2012). Topper Headon (The Clash) talks about ‚Mad, Bad and Dangerous‘ (Interview). 00:54 minutes in. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Gilbert 2004, p. 305.
  9. ^ a b Temple, Julien (Director) (2007). Strummer: The Future is Unwritten (Motion picture). 68 minutes in.
  10. ^ The Clash (19 November 1991). Clash on Broadway (CD). New York, NY: Epic. OCLC 25248082.
  11. ^ „Rock the Casbah“. Londonsburning.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
  12. ^ „Rock the Casbah / Mustapha Dance“. Rate Your Music. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b Gilbert 2004, p. 323.
  14. ^ Tannenbaum, Rob; Marks, Ted (2011). I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Penguin. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9781101526415.
  15. ^ Ty, Burr (9 November 2007). „Joe Strummer: The Future is Unwritten Movie Review“. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  16. ^ Murphy, Heather (17 September 2001). „It’s the End of the World as Clear Channel Knows It“. Slate.
  17. ^ Miller, John J. (26 May 2006). „Rockin‘ the Right“. National Review Online. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  18. ^ Pierce, Charles P. (2009). „5“. Idiot America: How Stupidity Became a Virtue in the Land of the Free. Doubleday.
  19. ^ a b Wyman, Bill (October 2017). „All 139 the Clash Songs, Ranked From Worst to Best“. Vulture. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  20. ^ Cumming, Tim (29 November 2005). „Stop the War Benefit Concert: Brian Eno/Imogen Heap/Nitin Sawhney/Rachid Taha, Astoria, London“. The Independent. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008.
  21. ^ „Rachid Taha“. BBC Online. 14 January 2008. Archived from the original (SHTML) on 14 January 2008.
  22. ^ „Rock The Casbah, Rachid Taha, Barbican,2007, Mick Jones, guest“. YouTube. 7 April 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  23. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 65. ISBN 0−646−11917−6.
  24. ^ Top RPM Singles: Issue 6194.“ RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  25. ^ Nederlandse Top 40 – week 36, 1982″ (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  26. ^ The Clash – Rock The Casbah“ (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  27. ^ The Clash – Rock The Casbah“. Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  28. ^ The Clash – Rock The Casbah“. Singles Top 100. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  29. ^ „Official Singles Chart Top 100“. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  30. ^ a b c „The Clash – Awards“. AllMusic. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  31. ^ „CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending JANUARY 29, 1983“. Cash Box. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012.
  32. ^ The Clash – Rock The Casbah“ (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  33. ^ The Irish Charts – Search Results – Rock the Casbah“. Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  34. ^ „Official Singles Chart Top 100“. Official Charts Company. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  35. ^ „National Top 100 Singles for 1982“. Kent Music Report. 3 January 1983. Retrieved 6 January 2020 – via Imgur.
  36. ^ „End of Year Charts 1983“. Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  37. ^ „Top 100 Hits for 1983“. The Longbored Surfer. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  38. ^ „The CASH BOX Year-End Charts: 1983“. Cash Box. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.
  39. ^ „Italian single certifications – The Clash – Rock the Casbah“ (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 13 September 2019. Select „2019“ in the „Anno“ drop-down menu. Select „Rock the Casbah“ in the „Filtra“ field. Select „Singoli“ under „Sezione“.
  40. ^ „British single certifications – Clash – Rock the Casbah“. British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  41. ^ „American single certifications – The Clash – Rock the Casbah“. Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  42. ^ „ ‚I forgive you‘: The Clash’s drummer Topper Headon makes peace with the man who sacked him“. The Independent. 28 June 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2016.

Bibliography

  • Gilbert, Pat (2004). Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of the Clash. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1845130170.

External links

Artist(s)

Veröffentlichungen von The Clash die im OTRS erhältlich sind/waren:

The Clash ¦ London Calling ¦ Hits Back ¦ Combat Rock + The People’s Hall ¦ Rock The Casbah

The Clash auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

The Clash


The Clash live in Oslo (1980)
Allgemeine Informationen
HerkunftLondon, England
Genre(s)Punk, New Wave
Gründung1976
Auflösung1986
Websitehttp://www.theclash.com/
Gründungsmitglieder
Joe Strummer († 22. Dezember 2002)
Gesang, Bass
Paul Simonon
Gesang, Gitarre
Mick Jones (bis 1983)
Gesang, Gitarre
Keith Levene (1976)
Terry Chimes (1976, 1977, 1982–1983)
Letzte Besetzung
Gesang, Gitarre
Joe Strummer
Gesang, Bass
Paul Simonon
Gitarre, Gesang
Nick Sheppard (ab 1983)
Gitarre
Vince White (ab 1983)
Schlagzeug
Pete Howard (ab 1983)
Ehemalige Mitglieder
Gesang, Schlagzeug
Nicky „Topper“ Headon (1977–1982)
Schlagzeug
Rob Harper (1976–1977)

The Clash (engl. „Kollision“) war eine britische Rockband, die 1976 in London gegründet wurde. The Clash gilt als eine der einflussreichsten frühen Punkbands neben anderen Gruppen wie den Ramones und den Sex Pistols. Sie verarbeiteten Einflüsse aus Reggae, Folk und verschiedener Popmusik.

Bandgeschichte

The Clash wurden im Juni 1976 in der ersten Welle der englischen Punk-Bewegung in London gegründet. Paul Simonon und Mick Jones (beide Mitglieder der Band London SS) wurden am 31. Mai von ihrem Manager Bernie Rhodes mit Joe Strummer bekannt gemacht, der zu dieser Zeit mit den 101’ers lokal erfolgreich war. Keith Levene, der anfangs den zweiten Gitarristen geben sollte, verabschiedete sich bald nach der eigentlichen Gründung und spielte später mit Johnny Rotten bei Public Image Ltd., einer Post-Punk-Band. Einen Drummer fand man mit Terry Chimes.

Das erste Konzert der Clash fand am 4. Juli 1976 als Vorgruppe der Sex Pistols statt. Im Februar 1977 unterschrieben sie einen Majorvertrag mit CBS Records, kurz darauf erschien die erste Single White Riot sowie das Album The Clash, die zu Verkaufserfolgen wurden.

Der Vertrag mit CBS stellte sich später als großer Fehler heraus, da er sie zur Ablieferung von acht Alben verpflichtete. Die Bandmitglieder gaben später zu, dass es leichtsinnig gewesen war, ihn zu unterschreiben. Auch vereinbarten The Clash mit ihrem Label, Doppel- oder Dreifach-LPs für ihr meist jugendliches und daher wenig zahlungskräftiges Publikum zu einem verhältnismäßig günstigen Verkaufspreis auf den Markt zu bringen. Die Mindereinnahmen wurden von der Band getragen, so dass diese an einigen ihrer Platten nicht viel Geld verdiente, sondern anfangs – trotz guter Verkaufszahlen – bei ihrer Plattenfirma sogar Schulden hatte.

Kurz nach ihrem Debütalbum, das nach der Band benannt wurde, verabschiedete sich Terry Chimes und wurde durch Topper Headon ersetzt.

Das zweite Album Give ’Em Enough Rope erschien im November 1978. Im Juli 1979 erschien die amerikanische Version des Debütalbums. In ihr waren drei Lieder (u. a. Protex Blue) der englischen Version ausgetauscht. Die Höchstplatzierung in den Billboard-Charts war Platz 100.

Im Dezember 1979 kam das berühmteste und erfolgreichste Album, London Calling heraus, dem im Dezember 1980 das wesentlich experimentellere – und weniger erfolgreiche – Sandinista! folgte. Ebenfalls 1979 erschien der The-Clash-Film Rude Boy, bei dem die Band selbst mitspielt und auch etliche Konzertausschnitte zu sehen sind, unter anderem aus ihrem berühmten Konzert im Londoner Victoria Park. Der Film handelt vom Pornoverkäufer Ray, der sich in der Punk- und Skinheadszene herumtreibt, Bier trinkt und später als unzuverlässiger Roadie bei The Clash anheuert.

Im Jahr 1982 folgte dann der Absturz von The Clash. Der einige Jahre zuvor gefeuerte Manager Rhodes wurde von Strummer gegen den Willen von Mick Jones wieder ins Boot geholt. Zwischen den wichtigen Bandmitgliedern entwickelten sich Streitigkeiten. Dennoch war ihre nächste Veröffentlichung im Mai desselben Jahres äußerst erfolgreich: Combat Rock enthält ihre berühmtesten Klassiker, Should I Stay Or Should I Go? und Rock the Casbah. In Großbritannien schaffte es das Album auf Platz 2, in Amerika erreichte es Platz 7.

Kurz nach der Veröffentlichung musste Topper Headon wegen seiner Heroinsucht die Band verlassen. Ersetzt wurde er wieder durch Terry Chimes, der 1983 erneut ausschied und dessen Platz Pete Howard einnahm. Auch Mick Jones wurde von Strummer und Simonon, nicht zuletzt auf Betreiben von Rhodes, aus der Band gedrängt.

Die Besetzung des letzten Albums Cut the Crap, das im November 1985 erschien, bestand aus Strummer, Simonon, Howard, dem 1983 dazugekommenen Gitarristen Nick Sheppard (The Cortinas) sowie Vince White. Das Album erreichte in den englischen Charts Platz 16.

Das Ende

Joe Strummer (2001)

Nach einer Festivaltour quer durch Europa rief Strummer im Herbst 1985 die Mitglieder der Band zusammen und beschloss mit ihnen, die Band aufzulösen.

Im Frühjahr 1991 erlebte der Titel Should I Stay Or Should I Go nochmals große Popularität und eroberte oberste Plätze der Charts, als er für eine Werbekampagne der Jeans-Marke Levi’s eingesetzt wurde.

Im Dezember 2002 starb Joe Strummer an einem angeborenen und zu Lebzeiten nicht festgestellten Herzfehler.

2003 wurde The Clash in die Rock and Roll Hall of Fame aufgenommen.[1]

Einfluss

Die Band hatte einen großen Einfluss auf das weitere Musikgeschehen. Sie beeinflusste den später entstehenden Britpop besonders durch die Kombination von griffigen Hooklines und aggressivem Auftreten. Besonders die Manic Street Preachers berufen sich auf die Band, aber auch andere Alternative-Größen wie Green Day, The Levellers, U2, The Cure oder R.E.M. Auch der experimentelle Sound von Manu Chao wurde von ihnen beeinflusst. Die Toten Hosen bezeichnen sich selbst als Clash-Fans und coverten Songs von The Clash auf verschiedenen Alben. Außerdem widmeten sie Joe Strummer das Lied Goodbye Garageland, dessen Text hauptsächlich aus Zitaten diverser Clash-Songs besteht.

The Clash wurden von diversen Bands gecovert – zum Beispiel coverten die Celtic-Punk-Rocker The Levellers 1994 „English Civil War“ – oder, direkt beeinflusst (aktuelle Beispiele sind The Dead 60s, The Libertines oder Hard-Fi), was ihren Einfluss auf die Musikkultur der Post-Punkära und alles, was danach folgte, nochmals untermauerte. Auch die Beatsteaks widmeten Joe Strummer ihr Lied „Hello Joe“. Die Amerikanische Polit- und Hardcore Punkband Anti-Flag coverte die Clash-Hits „Should I Stay or Should I Go?“, „I Fought the Law“, „London Calling“, „Clash City Rockers“ und „Career Opportunities“. Eine alternative Version von „Rock The Casbah“ veröffentlichte 2004 der algerisch-französische Musiker Rachid Taha – wobei Taha gegenüber Medien anführte, dass das Stück ursprünglich von ihm stamme und über eine Demoaufnahme zu The Clash gelangt sei.[2]

Der Rolling Stone listete die Band auf Rang 28 der 100 größten Musiker aller Zeiten.[3]

Songrechte

Das Clash-Management ließ am 31. Januar 1977 die Firma Nineden Limited registrieren, die dem Clash-Manager und den Bandmitgliedern gehörte und sowohl die eingehenden Tantiemen als auch allgemein die Veröffentlichungsrechte der Songs verwaltete. Die Band besaß somit ihren eigenen Musikverlag und behielt daher im Gegensatz zu anderen Künstlern die kommerzielle Kontrolle über ihr Material.[4]

Auftreten der Bandmitglieder auf den Studioalben

BandmitgliedAlbumInstrument
The ClashGive ’Em Enough RopeLondon CallingSandinista!Combat RockCut the Crap
Joe StrummerJaJaJaJaJaJaGitarre, Gesang
Paul SimononJaJaJaJaJaJaBass, Gesang
Mick JonesJaJaJaJaJaNeinGitarre, Gesang
Topper HeadonJa (USA)JaJaJaJaNeinSchlagzeug, Gesang
Keith LeveneNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinGitarre, Gesang
Nick SheppardNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinJaGitarre, Gesang
Vince WhiteNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinJaGitarre
Terry ChimesJaNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinSchlagzeug
Pete HowardNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinJaSchlagzeug
Rob HarperNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinNeinSchlagzeug

Diskografie

Studioalben

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5][6]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK USTemplate:Charttabelle/Wartung/Charts inexistent
1977The ClashUK12
Gold
Gold

(17 Wo.)UK
US126
Gold
Gold

(6 Wo.)US
US-Version 1999: UK:SilberSilber; UK-Version 1999: UK:GoldGold
Verkäufe: + 760.000
1978Give ’Em Enough RopeUK14
Gold
Gold

(2 Wo.)UK
US128
(10 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 100.000
1979London CallingAT17
(2 Wo.)AT
UK9
(20 Wo.)UK
US27
Gold
Gold

(33 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 1.230.000
1980Sandinista!UK19
Silber
Silber

(9 Wo.)UK
US24
Platin
Platin

(20 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 660.000
1982Combat RockDE48
(… Wo.)Template:Charttabelle/Wartung/vorläufigDE
CH56
(… Wo.)Template:Charttabelle/Wartung/vorläufigCH
UK2
Gold
Gold

(22 Wo.)UK
US7
Doppelplatin
×2
Doppelplatin

(61 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 2.225.000
1985Cut the CrapUK16
Silber
Silber

(3 Wo.)UK
US88
(12 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 60.000
1999London CallingUK21
Platin
Platin

(19 Wo.)UK
Verkäufe: + 300.000

grau schraffiert: keine Chartdaten aus diesem Jahr verfügbar

Kompilationen

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US
1980Black Market ClashUK74
(16 Wo.)UK
1988The Story of The Clash – Volume 1DE53
(8 Wo.)DE
UK7
Gold
Gold

(20 Wo.)UK
Verkäufe: + 300.000
1991The SinglesUK68
(2 Wo.)UK
1999The Story of The Clash – Volume 1UK70
(2 Wo.)UK
US
Platin
Platin
US
Verkäufe: + 1.000.000
From Here to EternityUK13
Gold
Gold

(5 Wo.)UK
US193
(1 Wo.)US
Live-Kompilation
Verkäufe: + 100.000
2003The Essential ClashUK18
Gold
Gold

(4 Wo.)UK
US99
(2 Wo.)US
Verkäufe: + 100.000
2004London Calling 25th AnniversaryAT17
(2 Wo.)AT
CH72
(1 Wo.)CH
UK26
Silber
Silber

(2 Wo.)UK
Verkäufe: + 60.000
2005The SinglesUK13
Platin
Platin

(9 Wo.)UK
Box-Set mit allen 7″-Singles
Verkäufe: + 325.000
2008Live at Shea StadiumUK31
(2 Wo.)UK
US93
(2 Wo.)US
Live-Mitschnitt von 1982
2013The Clash Hits BackUK13
Gold
Gold

(3 Wo.)UK
Verkäufe: + 100.000
Sound SystemUK53
(1 Wo.)UK

grau schraffiert: keine Chartdaten aus diesem Jahr verfügbar

Weitere Kompilationen

  • 1992: Twelve Inch Mixes
  • 1993: Super Black Market Clash
  • 2000: Clash on Broadway (UK:SilberSilber)
  • 2003: The Ultimate Collection (Best-Of-Album)

Singles

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US
1977White Riot
The Clash
UK38
(3 Wo.)UK
Complete ControlUK28
(2 Wo.)UK
1978Clash City Rockers
UK35
(4 Wo.)UK
White Man In Hammersmith Palais
UK32
(7 Wo.)UK
Tommy Gun
Give ’Em Enough Rope
UK19
(10 Wo.)UK
1979English Civil War
Give ’Em Enough Rope
UK25
(6 Wo.)UK
The Cost of Living EP
UK22
(8 Wo.)UK
London Calling
London Calling
UK11
(10 Wo.)UK
1980Train In Vain
London Calling
US23
(14 Wo.)US
Bankrobber
London Calling
UK12
(10 Wo.)UK
The Call Up
Sandinista!
UK40
(6 Wo.)UK
1981Hitsville UK
Sandinista!
UK56
(4 Wo.)UK
The Magnificent Seven
Sandinista!
UK34
(5 Wo.)UK
This Is Radio Clash
UK47
(6 Wo.)UK
1982Know Your Rights
Combat Rock
UK43
(3 Wo.)UK
Rock the Casbah
Combat Rock
UK30
(10 Wo.)UK
US8
(24 Wo.)US
Should I Stay Or Should I Go
Combat Rock
UK17
(9 Wo.)UK
US45
(23 Wo.)US
1985This Is England
Cut the Crap
UK24
(5 Wo.)UK
1988I Fought the Law
The Story of the Clash
UK29
Silber
Silber

(6 Wo.)UK
Verkäufe + 200.000
London Calling
The Story of the Clash
UK46
(3 Wo.)UK
Wiederveröffentlichung
1990Return to Brixton
UK57
(2 Wo.)UK
1991Should I Stay or Should I Go
The Singles
DE5
(20 Wo.)DE
AT5
(12 Wo.)AT
CH4
(20 Wo.)CH
UK1
Platin
Platin

(9 Wo.)UK
Wiederveröffentlichung
Verkäufe + 657.500
Rock the Casbah
The Singles
UK15
Platin
Platin

(6 Wo.)UK
Wiederveröffentlichung
Verkäufe + 625.000
London Calling
The Singles
UK64
Platin
Platin

(2 Wo.)UK
Wiederveröffentlichung
Verkäufe + 680.000

grau schraffiert: keine Chartdaten aus diesem Jahr verfügbar

Weitere Singles

  • 1977: Remote Control
  • 1991: Train in Vain (Wiederveröffentlichung)

Videoalben

JahrTitelHöchstplatzierung, Gesamtwochen, AuszeichnungChartplatzierungenChartplatzierungen[5]
(Jahr, Titel, Plat­zie­rungen, Wo­chen, Aus­zeich­nungen, Anmer­kungen)
Anmerkungen
 DE AT CH UK US
2008Live: Revolution RockUK6
(11 Wo.)UK
Erstveröffentlichung: 10. Oktober 2008

Weitere Videoalben

  • 1999: Westway to the World (UK:GoldGold)
  • 2005: Rude Boy – The Movie (UK:PlatinPlatin)

Auszeichnungen für Musikverkäufe

Goldene Schallplatte

  • Frankreich Frankreich
    • 1982: für das Album London Calling
    • 1982: für das Album Sandinista!
    • 1993: für das Album Combat Rock
  • Italien Italien
    • 2016: für das Album The Singles
    • 2019: für die Single Rock the Casbah
    • 2021: für das Album Combat Rock
  • Kanada Kanada
    • 1980: für das Album London Calling
    • 1982: für das Album Combat Rock
    • 2019: für die Single Train In Vain
  • Neuseeland Neuseeland
    • 1992: für die Single Should I Stay or Should I Go[7]
    • 2007: für das Album The Singles[8]

2× Goldene Schallplatte

  • Frankreich Frankreich
    • 1992: für das Album The Story of The Clash – Volume 1

Platin-Schallplatte

  • Italien Italien
    • 2019: für das Album London Calling
  • Kanada Kanada
    • 2019: für die Single London Calling

2× Platin-Schallplatte

  • Italien Italien
    • 2021: für die Single Should I Stay or Should I Go

Anmerkung: Auszeichnungen in Ländern aus den Charttabellen bzw. Chartboxen sind in ebendiesen zu finden.

Land/RegionAus­zeich­nung­en für Mu­sik­ver­käu­fe
(Land/Region, Auszeichnungen, Verkäufe, Quellen)
Silver record icon.svg SilberGold record icon.svg GoldPlatinum record icon.svg PlatinVer­käu­feQuel­len
 Frankreich (SNEP)0! SGold record icon.svg 5× Gold50! P500.000infodisc.fr
 Italien (FIMI)0! SGold record icon.svg 3× Gold3Platinum record icon.svg 3× Platin3245.000fimi.it
 Kanada (MC)0! SGold record icon.svg 3× Gold3Platinum record icon.svg Platin1250.000musiccanada.com
 Neuseeland (RMNZ)0! SGold record icon.svg 2× Gold20! P15.000Einzelnachweise
 Vereinigte Staaten (RIAA)0! SGold record icon.svg 2× Gold2Platinum record icon.svg 4× Platin45.000.000riaa.com
 Vereinigtes Königreich (BPI)Silver record icon.svg 6× Silber6Gold record icon.svg 9× Gold9Platinum record icon.svg 6× Platin63.775.000bpi.co.uk
InsgesamtSilver record icon.svg 6× Silber6Gold record icon.svg 24× Gold24Platinum record icon.svg 14× Platin14

Literatur

Weblinks

Commons: The Clash – Album mit Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

Quellen

  1. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Clash in der Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
  2. Nuclear fusion, Robin Denselow, The Guardian, 28. Mai 2001 (engl.)
  3. 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone, 2. Dezember 2010, abgerufen am 8. August 2017 (englisch).
  4. Failure Page. Abgerufen am 23. Mai 2021.
  5. a b c d Chartquellen:
  6. Auszeichnungen für Musikverkäufe: UK US
  7. Gold für Should I Stay or Should I Go in Neuseeland
  8. Gold für The Singles in Neuseeland (Memento vom 31. August 2011 im Internet Archive)

Veröffentlichungen von Ranking Roger die im OTRS erhältlich sind/waren:

Rock The Casbah

Ranking Roger auf Wikipedia (oder andere Quellen):

Ranking Roger
Roger performing at the Godiva Festival in Coventry, 2015
Roger performing at the Godiva Festival in Coventry, 2015
Background information
Birth nameRoger Charlery
Born(1963-02-21)21 February 1963
Birmingham, England
Died26 March 2019(2019-03-26) (aged 56)
Birmingham, England
Genres
Occupation(s)Musician
Instruments
  • Vocals]
  • toasting
Years active1978–2019
LabelsIRS, Paras

Roger Charlery (21 February 1963 – 26 March 2019), known professionally as Ranking Roger,[1][2][3][4] was a British musician. He was a vocalist in the 1980s ska band the Beat (known in North America as the English Beat) and later new wave band General Public. He subsequently was the frontman for a reformed Beat lineup.

The „Ranking“ moniker is short for „top-ranking“ or „high-ranking“, and was a titular boast common amongst reggae music MCs.[5]

Early life

Roger Charlery was born in Birmingham, England, and grew up in the Small Heath area of the city.[6] The son of Jean Baptiste Charlery and his wife Anne Marie, he was of West Indian descent; his mother and father were from Saint Lucia. He attended Archbishop Williams school, and while still at school began deejaying with reggae sound systems before becoming a drummer with the Dum Dum Boys in 1978.[7][8][9]

1970s–2001

Roger became a punk rock fan as a teenager and was the drummer in the Dum Dum Boys before joining ska revival pioneers the Beat in the late 1970s. The Dum Dum Boys‘ first gig was with the Beat and his burgeoning friendship with them meant he began to gatecrash their gigs, take the mic, and start toasting.[10] He had appeared on stage, toasting and singing with them, many times before officially joining the band. His energetic style and Jamaican-influenced vocals, paired with Dave Wakeling, were crucial in distinguishing the band from the other second-wave ska bands. The Beat released three albums: the critically acclaimed and seminal I Just Can’t Stop It (1980), Wha’ppen? (1981) and Special Beat Service (1982).[2]

Music journalist Richard Grabel wrote in 1985: „In the Beat, his role was mainly to ‚toast‘ — Jamaican slang for the rhythmic raps that Roger would interject into the middle of the Beat’s songs. But those toasts often contained the songs‘ most important emotional messages. Beyond that, Roger was the one whose looseness and humor, great dancing and general presence made the Beat happen on stage.“[11]

In 1981, Joe Strummer and Mick Jones of the Clash invited him to sing on a version of „Rock the Casbah“ which was later released in 2015.[12]

After the Beat’s 1983 break-up, Roger and Wakeling formed General Public with former members of Dexys Midnight Runners and Horace Panter of the Specials.[13] Roger took more of a leading role with vocals in this group.[11] They released the album All the Rage (1984), aided by the single „Tenderness“. Three years later, they released Hand to Mouth (1986), which was less successful, and the band broke up.

In 1995, Roger and Wakeling reformed General Public with a new supporting band, and released the album Rub It Better. The duo also worked on various projects and reunited for the 1994 Threesome soundtrack, recording a cover of „I’ll Take You There“.[14]

Roger released Radical Departure, his first solo album, in 1988 which included band members Panter and Fuzz Townshend.[15] The single „So Excited“ peaked at No. 23 on the US Modern Rock Tracks chart.[16] On 2001’s Inside My Head, Roger pursued a more dance/electronic sound.[17]

Collaborations

In the early 1990s, Roger joined members of the Specials to form the new band Special Beat which released two live albums.[18] In 1996, he sang back-up and toasting on the new version of the Police’s „The Bed’s Too Big Without You“ on Sting’s „Let Your Soul Be Your Pilot“ CD-Maxi single. The American rock band Smash Mouth featured Roger on the song „You Are My Number One“ from their album Get the Picture? (2003).[19]

He collaborated with Pato Banton in 1995 on „Bubbling Hot“, which peaked at No. 15 on the UK single charts.[20]

Ranking Roger, performing with his daughter Saffren Murphy and son Ranking Junior (Matthew Murphy) in 2015

In 2005, the Beat re-formed, with Roger and Everett Morton of the original line-up, with Roger’s son, Ranking Junior also on vocals. Performing some new material, the Beat performed at Glastonbury the same year, where Roger was joined by Ranking Junior.[21]

Roger sang on „Roxanne“ onstage with the Police on their 2007 reunion tour.[22] He was a guest performer on Big Audio Dynamite’s seventh album Higher Power in 1994 when the band were known as simply ‚Big Audio‘. He later became a member of Big Audio Dynamite for their final studio album Entering a New Ride (1997).[23]

Roger contributed to Walls Come Tumbling Down: The Music and Politics of Rock Against Racism, 2 Tone and Red Wedge, written by Daniel Rachel and published in 2016.[24]

Roger collaborated with Welsh ragga-metal band Dub War on a cover of the Upsetters‘ „War Ina Babylon“ in what is claimed to be his last recording before his death, which will be included on their 2022 album Westgate Under Fire.[25]

Later work

Roger continued to lead the Beat and tours throughout Europe as well as works on solo projects. In his last years he released a series of new albums. 2013 saw the release of Retrospective, an album of solo work recorded over the 25 years since the break-up of General Public, featuring various artists and producers including Sly and Robbie,[26] and songs such as „Bubbling Hot“ (the 1994 hit collaboration with Pato Banton) and a cover of „The Bed’s Too Big Without You“ (first recorded with Sting for the 1996 film The Truth About Cats & Dogs[27]).

Live in London was released in 2013 – a live recording of the Beat playing at 229 The Venue, featuring some of their greatest hits as well as new tracks by Roger and Ranking Junior.[28]

2014’s Pop Off the Head Top consisted of entirely new compositions, including additional vocals and song writing from Ranking Junior. They recorded tracks for this project with Hugh Harris from London, Dopegrinders from Brighton and Mr. Anonymous from Colorado. Other key tracks involved the Italian producer AleXannA whose version of “Sixteen Tons” features vocals by Roger, Ranking Junior, and Roger’s daughter Saffren Murphy.[29]

Rock the Casbah,[30] released in 2015 in collaboration with the charity Strummerville (founded by the friends and family of Joe Strummer to support aspiring musicians and projects that create social mobility through music) is a five-track EP which features a previously unheard version of „Rock the Casbah“, which Joe Strummer and Mick Jones of the Clash had asked Roger to sing on back in 1981, re-recorded by the Brighton producers Dopegrinders, and using the original stems donated by Mick Jones. The EP features new tracks by Roger, Ranking Junior and Hugh Harris as well as a re-working of „Muscle Ska“, co-written by Roger and Neville Staple from the Specials.

In September 2016, DMF released Bounce; the first new album by the Beat in 30 years. Written by Ranking Roger, Mick Lister and Ranking Junior, it was produced by Mick Lister and mixed by Tim Hamill and Mick Lister, with the exception of „Side to Side“ and „My Dream“, which were mixed by Dennis Bovell. The album was recorded in Roger’s ‚eco-friendly hideaway‘ – a round recording studio in his back garden, which he called The Pod.[8][31] The album received generally positive reviews[32] with reviewers typically praising the band’s ‚passionately political edge‘[33] and pointing to how the album ‚encompasses every aspect of one of the most musically diverse bands to come out of the multi-racial, multi-cultural explosion that made British pop music what it was in the 80’s‘.[34]

The band continues to tour and currently features Roger’s son Ranking Junior (real name Matthew Murphy), with drummers Oscar Harrison of Ocean Colour Scene and Fuzz Townshend of Pop Will Eat Itself. The line-up is completed by Chiko Hamilton on sax, bass guitarist Andy Pearson, former Bad Manners and Specialbeat guitarist Andy Perriss and Bobby Bird of Higher Intelligence Agency.[25][35]

In 2017, the Beat joined fellow two-tone band the Selecter for a co-headline UK tour,[36] Owing to demand, the tour was extended to cover other countries.[37][38]

In early August 2018, Ranking Roger was hospitalised with a suspected mini-stroke. He recuperated at home, but cancelled planned live shows in the United Kingdom and United States. The band had just finished recording an album and Roger had written his autobiography, I Just Can’t Stop It, published June 2019.[39][40]

Personal life and death

Roger had five children, including son Ranking Junior (Matthew Murphy) and daughter Saffren who both featured with their father in a Beat revival band.[9]

In January 2019, it was announced that Roger had undergone surgery for two brain tumours, and was undergoing treatment for lung cancer.[13] He died at his home in Birmingham on 26 March 2019 at the age of 56.[41][42][43]

In 2021, Ranking Junior teamed up with indie rock band the Ordinary Boys to record a tribute single to his father called „Legacy“.[44]

Discography

Solo albums

  • Radical Departure (1988)[45]
  • Inside My Head (2001)[45]

The Beat Feat. Ranking Roger

  • Bounce (2016)
  • Public Confidential (2019)

References

  1. ^ Strong, Martin C. (2002) The Great Rock Discography, 6th Edition, Canongate, ISBN 1−84195−312−1, p. 72
  2. ^ a b Huey, Steve „Ranking Roger Biography“, Allmusic, retrieved 17 February 2010
  3. ^ Jon Pareles, Patricia Romanowski, Holly George-Warren (1997) The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll, Pocket Books,ISBN 978−0−684−81044−7
  4. ^ Moskowitz, David V. (2006) Caribbean Popular Music: an Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rock Steady, and Dancehall, Greenwood Press,ISBN 0−313−33158−8, p. 246
  5. ^ „Dave Wakeling of The English Beat : Songwriter Interviews“. Songfacts.com.
  6. ^ Mason, Peter (27 March 2019). „Ranking Roger obituary“. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  7. ^ Block, Adam (1985). „David Wakeling Goes Public.“ Mother Jones Magazine- „Music“ section, Feb–Mar 1985. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  8. ^ a b Brady, Poppy (2016). „Ranking Roger’s four decades on ska’s front line.“ The Voice Online October 12, or December 10, 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b „Ranking Roger obituary“. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  10. ^ Amar Kabylobask (11 March 2015). „The Beat reunited US Show“. YouTube. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b Grabel, Richard (July 1985). „Being of General Public Interest“. Creem. Retrieved 3 June 2019 – via Rock’s Backpages.
  12. ^ „Ranking Roger ‚Rock the Casbah‘ EP for Strummerville“. The Beat Official Website. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  13. ^ a b „Tributes as The Beat star Ranking Roger dies“. Bbc.co.uk. 27 March 2019.
  14. ^ Prato, Greg. „General Public – Biography and History“. AllMusic. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  15. ^ „Radical Departure“. AllMusic. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  16. ^ „Billboard“ (PDF). Americanradiohistory.com. 10 September 1988. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  17. ^ „Inside My Head“. AllMusic. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  18. ^ „Special Beat“. AllMusic. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  19. ^ You Are My Number One (Media notes). Interscope Records. 2003. SMASHCD5.
  20. ^ „Official Charts“. Officialcharts.com. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  21. ^ Courtney, Ian (26 March 2019). „The Beat’s Ranking Roger Passes“. Celebrityaccess.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  22. ^ „The Police with Rankin Roger (Roxanne)“. 6 September 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2017 – via YouTube.
  23. ^ „Ranking Roger and Mick Jones: A musical mutual appreciation society“. Marcoonthebass.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  24. ^ „Walls Come Tumbling Down“. Daniel Rachel. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  25. ^ a b „Dub War“. Earache Records. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  26. ^ „Rock The Casbah – An EP by Ranking Roger: Retrospective – Looking Back 2010-1988“. PledgeMusic. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  27. ^ The Truth About Cats & Dogs (1996), retrieved 27 June 2017
  28. ^ The Beat With Ranking Roger – Live In London (Media notes). Concert Live. 2013. CLCD462.
  29. ^ „ ‚We’re Not the Kind of Band That Just Stands Around on Stage‘ . Themusic.com.au. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  30. ^ „Rock The Casbah – An EP by Ranking Roger: Rock The Casbah – An EP by Ranking Roger“. PledgeMusic. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  31. ^ Young, Graham (3 September 2016). „First new album in 30 years for The Beat feat Ranking Roger“. Birminghammail.co.uk. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  32. ^ Bounce by The English Beat, retrieved 27 June 2017
  33. ^ „Bounce – Record Collector Magazine“. Recordcollectormag.com. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  34. ^ „ALBUM REVIEW: THE BEAT FEAT RANKING ROGER – BOUNCE | Welcome to UK Music Reviews“. Ukmusicreviews.co.uk. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  35. ^ „History“. The Beat Official Website. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  36. ^ „THE BEAT FEAT RANKING ROGER / THE SELECTER CO-HEADLINE SHOW AT LONDON ROUNDHOUSE!“. The Beat Official Website. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  37. ^ „Pauline Black of the Selecter talks music, politics and the British band’s three shows in Southern California this week“. LA Daily News. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  38. ^ „Pauline Black interview: race, female empowerment and the 2 Tone life“. Skiddle. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  39. ^ „Statement regarding Ranking Roger“. The Beat Official Website. 21 September 2018.
  40. ^ „I JUST CAN’T STOP IT“. The Beat Official Website. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  41. ^ Pearis, Bill (26 March 2019). „Ranking Roger (The English Beat, General Public), dead at 56“. BrooklynVegan. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  42. ^ Otte, Jedidajah (27 March 2019). „The Beat singer Ranking Roger dies aged 56“. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  43. ^ „Tributes as The Beat star Ranking Roger dies“. Bbc.co.uk. 27 March 2019.
  44. ^ „Ordinary Boys team up with Ranking Junior for Ranking Roger tribute“. Classicpopmag.com. 18 March 2021.
  45. ^ a b „Ranking Roger – Album Discography“. AllMusic. Retrieved 27 March 2019.

External links

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